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Last edited by Tom Morris
April 24, 2023 | History

Cicero

Marcus Tullius Cicero (pronounced /ˈsɪsɨroʊ/; Classical Latin: [ˈkikeroː]; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was a Roman philosopher, statesman, lawyer, political theorist, and Roman constitutionalist. He came from a wealthy municipal family of the equestrian order, and is widely considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists.

He introduced the Romans to the chief schools of Greek philosophy and created a Latin philosophical vocabulary (with neologisms such as humanitas, qualitas, quantitas, and essentia) distinguishing himself as a linguist, translator, and philosopher. An impressive orator and successful lawyer, Cicero thought that his political career was his most important achievement. Today, he is appreciated primarily for his humanism and philosophical and political writings. His voluminous correspondence, much of it addressed to his friend Atticus, has been especially influential, introducing the art of refined letter writing to European culture. Cornelius Nepos, the 1st-century BC biographer of Atticus, remarked that Cicero's letters contained such a wealth of detail "concerning the inclinations of leading men, the faults of the generals, and the revolutions in the government" that their reader had little need for a history of the period. Cicero's speeches and letters remain some of the most important primary sources that survive on the last days of the Roman Republic.

During the chaotic latter half of the first century B.C. marked by civil wars and the dictatorship of Gaius Julius Caesar, Cicero championed a return to the traditional republican government. However, his career as a statesman was marked by inconsistencies and a tendency to shift his position in response to changes in the political climate. His indecision may be attributed to his sensitive and impressionable personality; he was prone to overreaction in the face of political and private change. "Would that he had been able to endure prosperity with greater self-control and adversity with more fortitude!" wrote C. Asinius Pollio, a contemporary Roman statesman and historian. Cicero became an enemy of Mark Antony, attacking him in a series of speeches. He was proscribed an enemy of the state by the Second Triumvirate and subsequently murdered in 43 BC.

Source: Wikipedia

Roman statesman, lawyer, orator, and philosopher (106–43 BC)

Born 106 BC
Died 43 BC

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  • Cover of: Select orations of M. Tullius Cicero

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  • Cover of: De officiis
    First published in 1465 129 editions in 8 languages — 17 previewable Cover of edition deofficiis00cicerich Cover of edition deofficiis00cice Cover of edition threebooksofoffi00ciceuoft Cover of edition abhandlungberd00ciceuoft Cover of edition deofficiislibrii00ciceuoft Cover of edition deofficiislibri00cice Cover of edition cicerodeofficiis00cice Cover of edition deofficiislibrit00ciceuoft Cover of edition deofficiiswithen00ciceuoft

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  • Cover of: Cato major De senectute
    First published in 1481 93 editions in 8 languages — 20 previewable Cover of edition mtciceroscatomaj00cicerich Cover of edition catomajordesenec00ciceuoft Cover of edition catomaiordesenec00cice Cover of edition twoessaysonoldag00ciceiala Cover of edition catomaiordialogu00ciceuoft Cover of edition desenectutedeami0000cice_j1u5 Cover of edition catomajordesen00ciceuoft Cover of edition cihm_50941 Cover of edition mtulliciceronisc00ciceuoft

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  • Cover of: Tusculanarum disputationum ad M. Brutum libri quinque.

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  • Cover of: The correspondence.

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  • Cover of: De Natura Deorum Libri Tres
    First published in 1718 70 editions in 4 languages — 10 previewable Cover of edition denaturadeorumli00ciceuoft Cover of edition denaturadeorumac00ciceuoft Cover of edition denaturadeoruml00schgoog Cover of edition mtulliiciceroni04swaigoog Cover of edition mtulliiciceroni00schgoog Cover of edition cierodenaturadeo0000unse Cover of edition natureofgods0000cice Cover of edition natureofgods00cice Cover of edition cicerondenaturad00wals

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  • Cover of: The treatises of M.T. Cicero: On the nature of the gods ; On divination ; On fate ; On the republic ; On the laws ; and On standing for the consulship

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  • Cover of: Letters to Atticus
    First published in 1582 66 editions in 6 languages — 15 previewable Cover of edition letterstoatticus01ciceuoft Cover of edition lettresatticus01cice Cover of edition lettresatticus02cice Cover of edition lettresatticus03cice Cover of edition lettresatticus04cice Cover of edition lettresatticus05cice Cover of edition lettresatticus06cice Cover of edition letterstoatticu02ciceuoft Cover of edition lettersofcicerot00ciceiala

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  • Cover of: De amicitia: a translation
    First published in 1511 65 editions in 8 languages — 17 previewable Cover of edition laeliusdeamiciti00ciceuoft Cover of edition deamicitiatransl00ciceuoft Cover of edition diekirchenundsek0000katt Cover of edition mtulliciceronisl00cice Cover of edition deamicitiaonfrie00cice Cover of edition deamicitiaedited00ciceuoft Cover of edition deamiciti00ciceuoft Cover of edition tulliodellamiciz00cice Cover of edition deamicitia00ciceuoft

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  • Cover of: Cicero: Pro Roscio Amerino (Bristol Latin Texts Series) (Bristol Latin Texts Series)

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  • Cover of: Cicero on oratory and orators
    First published in 1755 58 editions in 6 languages — 18 previewable Cover of edition deoratorefrden00ciceuoft Cover of edition onoratoryandorat01ciceuoft Cover of edition ciceroonoratoryo00ciceiala Cover of edition deoratorebook1tr00ciceuoft Cover of edition ciceroonoratorya00ciceuoft Cover of edition deoratorelibrit00ciceuoft Cover of edition cicerodeoratore01ciceuoft Cover of edition deoratore04cicegoog Cover of edition ciceroonoratory00watsgoog

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  • Cover of: De finibus bonorum et malorum
    First published in 1471 55 editions in 6 languages — 8 previewable Cover of edition definibusbonoru00cice Cover of edition dessuprmesbien00ciceuoft Cover of edition mtulliiciceronis00ciceuoft Cover of edition definibusbonorum00cice_0 Cover of edition definibusbonoru00cicegoog Cover of edition mtulliciceronis00madvgoog Cover of edition cicerodefinibusb0000unse

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  • Cover of: De re publica; De legibus
    First published in 1553 55 editions in 8 languages — 8 previewable Cover of edition derepublicadeleg0000cice Cover of edition iframmentideseil00ciceuoft Cover of edition oncommonwealth0000cice_i2t4 Cover of edition republicandlaws00cice Cover of edition republicandlaws0000cice Cover of edition derepublicaselec0000cice Cover of edition cicerooncommonwe00cice

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  • Cover of: M. Tulli Ciceronis Brutus
    First published in 1550 45 editions in 8 languages — 7 previewable Cover of edition brutus00cicegoog Cover of edition declarisoratori00cicegoog Cover of edition mtulliiciceroni00kellgoog Cover of edition brutus00wetzgoog Cover of edition mtulliciceronisb0000cice Cover of edition brutus0000cice_p6o1

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  • Cover of: The letters to his friends
    First published in 1531 44 editions in 5 languages — 6 previewable Cover of edition letterstoatticus00cice_681 Cover of edition letterstohisfrie01cice Cover of edition ciceroinhislett00tyrrgoog Cover of edition ciceroepistulaea0000cice Cover of edition letterstohisbrot0000cice

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  • Cover of: The letters of Marcus Tullius Cicero to several of his friends: With remarks by William Melmoth

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  • Cover of: The letters of Cicero: the whole extant correspondence in chronological order

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  • Cover of: M.T. Ciceronis orationes quædam selectæ: = Select orations of Marcus Tullius Cicero : with notes, historical and explanatory : and, a sketch of the life of the orator.

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  • Cover of: Philippics
    First published in 1521 37 editions in 5 languages — 11 previewable Cover of edition secondphilippic00cice Cover of edition philippics00ciceuoft Cover of edition secondphilippicw00ciceuoft Cover of edition philippicii00ciceuoft Cover of edition philippicoratio00ciceuoft Cover of edition philippicoration00ciceuoft Cover of edition philippici00ciceuoft Cover of edition philippicswithen0015cice Cover of edition cicerosersteund00halmgoog

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  • Cover of: Scripta quae manserunt omnia
    First published in 1800 28 editions in 1 language — 6 previewable Cover of edition p3scriptaquaeman02cice Cover of edition scriptaquaemanse00ciceuoft Cover of edition operaomniaunovol00ciceuoft Cover of edition p1scriptaquaeman13ciceuoft Cover of edition scriptaquaemans00friegoog

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Roman statesman, lawyer, orator, and philosopher (106–43 BC)

Born 106 BC
Died 43 BC

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April 24, 2023 Edited by Tom Morris merge authors
April 24, 2023 Edited by Tom Morris merge authors
December 21, 2022 Edited by Tom Morris merge authors
February 19, 2021 Edited by Tom Morris merge authors
April 1, 2008 Created by an anonymous user initial import