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April 25, 2010 | History
Cover of: Empowered Masters by Ulrich von Schroeder

Empowered Masters
Tibetan Wall Paintings of Mahasiddhas at Gyantse
1st ed.

Published by Serindia Publications & Visual Dharma Publications Ltd. in Chicago .
Written in English.

First Sentence

INTRODUCTION Some of the most important Tibetan Buddhist monuments to have survived the Cultural Revolution between 1966 and 1976 are located at Gyantse (rGyal rtse) in Tsang province of Central Tibet. For the study of Tibetan art, the temples of dPal ’khor chos sde, namely the dPal ’khor gTsug lag khang and dPal ’khor mchod rten, are for various reasons of great importance. The detailed information gained from the inscriptions with regard to the sculptors and painters summoned for the work testifies to the regional distribution of workshops in 15th-century Tsang. The sculptures and murals also document the extent to which a general consensus among the various traditions or schools had been achieved by the middle of that century. Of particular interest is the painted cycle of eighty-four mahåsiddhas, each with a name inscribed in Tibetan script. These paintings of mahasiddhas, or “great perfected ones endowed with supernatural faculties” (Tib. Grub chen), are located in the Lamdre chapel (Lam ’bras lha khang) on the second floor of the dPal ’khor gTsug lag khang. Bearing in mind that these murals are the most splendid extant painted Tibetan representations of mahasiddhas, one wonders why they have never been published as a whole cycle. Several scholars have at times intended to study these paintings, but it seems that difficulties of identification were the primary obstacle to publication. Although the life-stories of many of the eighty-four mahasiddhas still remain unidentified, the quality of the works nevertheless warrants a publication of these great murals. A siddha is a tantric adept who, through practice, has attained perfection and is endowed with special powers. Most renowned among these Indian tantric adepts, who lived mostly during the 9th and 10th centuries, are the mahasiddhas, who were often listed as a group of eighty-four. The siddhas were a class of ascetics who practiced outside the institutional discipline of the monasteries. Instead of metaphysical speculation, they practiced an existential and unorthodox way of life. Coming from diverse social backgrounds, the mahasiddhas included the entire variety of human experience. In addition to brahmin priests, monks and nuns, there were also lay practitioners, kings, ministers, merchants, farmers, servants, beggars, thieves and people from every walk of life. Each had a teacher who initiated and instructed him into the practice of meditation of a particular tantric lineage. Whereas scholastic tantric Buddhism was especially practiced in the monastic centres of North-Eastern India, the siddha movement touched all parts of India. The metaphysical content of the siddhas’ practice was based on texts known as tantras. About the origin of the tantras one can only speculate, but they seem to have their roots in very ancient ritual magic associated with fertility cults. After being transmitted orally, sometimes for hundreds of years, the tantras were only written down later. The life-stories of the siddhas at Gyantse provide fascinating insight into a wide range of tantric practice. The purpose of this publication is not to present a general study of mahåsiddhas, but rather to make these wonderful wall paintings of Gyantse known to a wider public. Of the eighty-four mahasiddhas only fifty-seven could be identified with reasonable certainty. The identification of the individual siddhas should be regarded as preliminary, as further studies will certainly reveal more about their often still-obscure identities. MAHĀSIDDHA WALL PAINTINGS AT GYANTSE The small, picturesque town of Gyantse in the Nyang valley of Tsang, once the capital of a local kingdom, is the location of the dPal ’khor chos sde monastic complex, constructed in the 15th century. A high wall separates it from the nearby residential area of Gyantse. The expansive site (Fig. 1) originally included sixteen monasteries, most of which were destroyed during the Cultural Revolution. Four of the monasteries belonged to the Sa skya tradition, three to the Bu lugs tradition, and nine to the dGe lugs tradition. [Note 4: The Sa skya tradition, founded by Sa chen Kun dga’ snying po (1092–1158); the Bu lugs tradition, based on the teachings of Bu ston Rin chengrub (1290–1364); the dGe lugs tradition, founded by Tsong kha pa (1357–1419).] The main architectural structures to have survived are the dPal ’khor gTsug lag khang (Fig. 3) and the nearby dPal ’khor mchod rten, or sKu ’bum (“great st°pa”) known as bKra shis sgo mang mchod rten or sKu ’bum bkra shis sgo mang (Fig. 2). The foundation of the large and massive structure of the dPal ’khor gTsug lag khang was laid in 1418 by Rab brtan kun bzang ’phags (1389–1442), the third prince of Gyantse, son of Kun dga’ ’phags pa (1357–1412); construction was finished in 1425. Two years later, in 1427, the dPal ’khor mchod rten was consecrated, and the decoration finished in 1439. All the temples contain painted clay statues, and the walls are extensively decorated with murals. [Note 5: E. F. Lo Bue and F. Ricca published an excellent account of this monument. 1993. The Great Stupa of Gyantse.] The dPal ’khor gTsug lag khang consists of two stories with a number of temples. On the ground floor, at the back of the large assembly hall, is the inner sanctuary, the gTsang khang (Skt.: gandhakuti), known as Jo bo’i lha khang, dedicated to the “Buddhas of the three times”, namely Dipankara (Mar me mdzad) (past), Sakyamuni (Sakya thub pa) (present), and Maitreya (Byams pa) (future). The western wing of the ground floor contains the rDo rje dbyings lha khang, dedicated to the cycle of Vajradhatu (Tib.: rDo rje dbyings). The eastern wing, the Chos rgyal lha khang, is named after the three great Tibetan “kings of the doctrine” (dharmaraja) (chos rgyal): Srong btsan sgam po (reigned c. 618–649), Khri srong lde brtsan (reigned c. 755–797), and Ral pa can (reigned c. 815–838). This temple is now named rGyal ba Byams pa’i lha khang after the large image of Maitreya, constructed later in the centre of the room by the dGe lugs pa. Near the entrance is the mGon khang, dedicated to the wrathful deities. Three temples, or chapels, stand on the upper floor of the dPal ’khor gTsug lag khang, namely the gNas brtan lha khang, the Lam ’bras lha khang , and the gZhal yas khang. These chapels were finished in the female wood-snake year, 1425. The gNas brtan lha khang contains large painted clay images of Sakyamuni surrounded by the sixteen arhats (Ch.: lohans), as well as Hva shang and Dharmatåla – executed in Sino-Tibetan style. [Note 6: Lo Bue, E. F. and Ricca, F. 1990. Gyantse Revisited, pp. 377–411, pls. 132–45]. The names of the artists who made the sculptures were not recorded. Beside the gNas brtan lha khang is the Byams pa mchod pa lha khang housing a large number of metal statues. [Note 7: Cf. von Schroeder, U. 2001. Buddhist Sculptures in Tibet. Vol. Two: Tibet & China, pls. 37C, 169C, 224D, 231C, 234C, 271C, 277C, 280B, 280C, 280E, 304C, 314C, 317C, 317E, 319C, 322E–F, 327D]. The Lam ’bras lha khang, built by Rab ’byor bzang po contains at its centre a three-dimensional Mandala of Samvara based on the tradition founded by Luipa (Plate 1). The chapel is named after the lam ’bras tradition (“path with the result”), especially popular with the Sa skya order. The lam ’bras teachings were formulated by Virupa according to instructions received from flåkin¡ Nairåtmyå. The most famous practitioners of this tantric tradition survive as statues lined up along the walls. At the centre of the western wall sits Vajradhara (Tib.: rDo rje ’chang) on a throne, flanked by two attendant deities. On each side of this central group are nine large painted clay statues, representing the eighteen masters of the lineage. The almost life-size images, modelled with straw and clay on a wooden armature, are of a striking appeal. They are placed against the walls below the paintings of the Mahasiddhas. [Note 8: Lo Bue, E. F. and Ricca, F. 1990. Gyantse Revisited, pp. 432–60, pls. 161–79; von Schroeder, U. 2001. Buddhist Sculptures in Tibet. Vol. Two: Tibet & China, pp. 870–81, pls. 201–204. In Central Tibet, at sMin grolgling monastery, there survives an intact series of large gilt copper repoussé sculptures also commemorating lam ’bras masters. Cf. von Schroeder, U. 2001. Buddhist Sculptures in Tibet. Vol. Two: Tibet & China, pp. 972–85; pls. 236–41.] Above the statues of the lam ’bras masters is a painted cycle composed of two registers of eighty-four mahasiddhas and two additional personages. According to the inscription, which runs along the walls, the paintings were executed by dPal ’byor Rin chen from gNas rnying, south of Gyantse. [Note 9: A painter of the name dPal ’byor rin chen was one of the teachers of sManbla don grub (born 1409?), founder of the sMan ris school of painting. Jackson, D. P. 1997. “Chronological Notes on the Founding Masters of Tibetan Painting Traditions”, Tibetan Art, pp. 254–61. Jackson, D. P. 1996. A History of Tibetan Painting: The Great Tibetan Painters and Their Traditions.] There seems to be some confusion about the number of mahåsiddhas painted on the walls of the Lam ’bras lha khang. This is due to the fact that the inscription below the paintings mentions eighty siddhas, whereas actually eighty-four were originally represented. [Note 10: According to the Myang chos ’byung, eighty-eight siddhas are represented. G. Tucci mentions eighty-four, whereas Erberto Lo Bue assumed that only eighty siddhas were shown, as stated in the inscription. Cf. Lo Bue, E. F. andRicca, F. 1990. Gyantse Revisited, pp. 411–32, pls. 147–60]. Of these eighty-four siddhas painted on the walls, two are entirely destroyed (G55, G63) and another retains only the lower section; the name has survived (G56). Thus, the inscribed Tibetan names of eighty-two mahasiddhas are known. Of the original eighty-six paintings, eighty-four represent a cycle of mahasiddhas (G1–G84). To fill empty spaces on the wall, two additional Buddhist teachers were added, namely Gling ras pa Padma rdo rje (1128–1188) (G85), a ’Brug pa bKa’ brgyud master, and Mahapandita Sri Sariputra (Pan chen Shri sh’a ri putra) (G86), abbot of the monastery at Bodhgaya (Gaya district, Bihar, Northern India). In 1414, the latter visited Gyantse on his way to Beijing, following an invitation by the Chinese Yongle emperor (r. 1403–1424). [Note 11: Tucci, G. 1949. Tibetan Painted Scrolls, pp. 632, 665–66, 689, 703, nn. 154, 819, 833] It is still not clear why Gling ras pa Padma rdo rje was added to the cycle of the eighty-four mahasiddhas. [Note 12: according to a personal communication, Erberto Lo Bue suggests thatperhaps Gling ras pa formed part of the teaching lineage of the consecratingmonk of the Lam ’bras lha khang.] He was the spiritual father of the ’Brug pa bKa’ brgyud sub-order and had his residence at Rwa lung, located about 40 kilometres south-east of Gyantse on the road to Lhasa. It has been suggested that the particular mahasiddha cycle at Gyantse was adopted by the Sa skya order in connection with the lam ’bras tradition, perhaps as received through Gling ras pa (1128–1188), though this is unlikely [Note 13: Lo Bue, E. F. and Ricca, F. 1990. Gyantse Revisited, p. 431.]. Yet Gling ras pa was perhaps added to the painted cycle of mahasiddhas because of his affiliation with the lam ’bras tradition, received from Phag mo gru pa (1110–1170), one of his teachers. A single-line inscription in dBu can script painted along the walls beneath the cycle of mahasiddhas contains information about the donors and painters: Zhing khams ’di’i dgos kyi sbyin bdag gnyer chen rnam sras pa sku mched rnams kyis dpon drung rgya gar mgon sku gshegs pa (....) bzhengs/. dge bas sems can thams cad kyi// sgrib gnyis byang zhing tshogs rdzogs te// chos kyi rgyal po’i (…) zhabs drung du// rnam mkhyen sangs rgyas thob par shog/ ri mo mkhas pa gnas rnying pa dpon mo che dpal ’byor ba dpon slob kyis gzabs nas bris so//. Grub chen brgyad cu’i [80 mahåsiddhas] zhing khams ’di’i dgos kyi sbyin bdag gnas rnying[ pa] dpon btsun dpal ’byor rin chen gyis// drin can pha ma’i thugs dgongs rdzogs phyir du// dad can gus pa’i sgo na[s] sems can thams cad kyi// sgrib gnyis byang zhing tshogs gnyis myur rdzogs te// rdzogs pa’i sangs rgyas myur du thob/ nas kyang// sems can rnams la phan bde byed par shog/. Zhing khams phyed po ’di’i dgos kyisbyin bdag dbu mdzad dpal mchog pas mdzad [ri mo] mkhas pa gnas rnying pa dpon mo che dpal ’byor ba dpon slob kyis gzabs [nas bris... bzheng?] s/ dge bas sems can thams cad sangs rgyas myur thob shog/ [Note 14: Lo Bue, E. F. and Ricca, F. 1990. Gyantse Revisited, p. 412, n. 119.] Translation: Southern wall: “The particular patrons of this mural section, the gNyer chen rNam sras pa and his brother, had it painted [in memory of ?] the deceased Lord rGya gar mgon. By this virtue may all sentient beings purify the obscurations, complete the preparatory accumulations and, in the presence of the King of Dharma, may they attain the perfect wisdom of Buddhahood!” Western wall: “The particular patron of the mural section of the eighty[-four] mahasiddhas, the dPon btsun dPal ’byor rin chen of gNas rnying, [prays through the merit of having them painted] as a memorial for his kind deceased parents, with faith and respect, that the two obscurations of all sentient beings will be purified and two accumulations rapidly completed, and that even after the attainment of perfect Buddhahood, each will bring benefit and happiness to sentient beings!” Northern wall: “The particular patron for this half of a mural section was dBu mdzad dPal mchog pa. It was carefully painted by the expert chief artist (dpon mo che) dPal ’byor ba of gNas rnying and his assistants. By this virtue may all sentient beings quickly attain Buddhahood!” (David P. Jackson) From the inscriptions we can conclude that the sponsors of the southern wall were rNam sras pa and his brother. The western wall of the temple was sponsored by the noble master from gNas rnying, dPal ’byor Rin chen, presumably the painter himself. The northern wall of the temple was sponsored by a donor named dPal mchog pa. The inscriptions further records that the paintings were done by dPal ’byor ba of gNas rnying and his assistants.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION .......... 12
PLATES 1–86 26
Plate 1. Lu i pa (Mahasiddha Luipa “The Fish-Entrails Eater”) (CSP 1) .......... 27
Plate 2. Li la pa (Mahasiddha L¡lapa “The Sensual King”) (CSP 2) .......... 29
Plate 3. Bir wa pa (Mahasiddha Virupa “The Dakin¡-Master”) (CSP 3) .......... 31
Plate 4. Dom bi he ru ka (Mahasiddha Dombipa “The Lord of the Low-Caste”) (CSP 4) .......... 33
Plate 5. Shwa ba ri pa (Mahasiddha Shavaripa “The Hunter”) (CSP 5) .......... 35
Plate 6. Sa ra ha (Mahasiddha Saraha “The Great Brahmin”) (CSP 6) 37
Plate 7. Ka ka li (Mahasiddha Kankaripa “The Widower”) (CSP 7) .......... 39
Plate 8. Nya nad pa (Mahasiddha M¡napa “The Fisherman”) (CSP 8) .......... 41
Plate 9. Gor kha pa (Mahasiddha Goraksa “The Cowherd”) (CSP 9) .......... 43
Plate 10. Tso rang ki (Mahasiddha Caurangipa “The Dismembered Prince”) (CSP 10) .......... 45
Plate 11. Bin ra pa (Mahasiddha Vinapa “The Musician”) (CSP 11) .......... 47
Plate 12. Zhi ba lha (Mahasiddha Santipa “The Missionary”) (CSP 12) .......... 49
Plate 13. Tha gan (Mahasiddha Tantipa “The Senile Weaver”) (CSP 13) .......... 51
Plate 14. Inscription illegible (Mahasiddha Camaripa? “The Shoemaker”) (CSP 14?) .......... 53
Plate 15. Klu sgrub (Mahasiddha Nagarjuna “The Philosopher”) (CSP 16) .......... 55
Plate 16. Khar ka pa (Mahasiddha Khadgapa “The Swordsman”) (CSP 15) .......... 57
Plate 17. Ka na pa (Mahasiddha Kanhapa “The Dark Man”) (CSP 17) .......... 59
Plate 18. Ka na ri (Mahasiddha Aryadeva, also known as Karnaripa “The One-Eyed”) (CSP 18) .......... 61
Plate 19. Tha ga na (Mahasiddha Thaganapa “The Habitual Liar”) (CSP 19) .......... 63
Plate 20. Na ro pa (Mahasiddha Nåropa “The Unshakeable”) (CSP 20) .......... 65
Plate 21. Sha mi pa (Mahasiddha Syalipa “The Jackal-Man”) (CSP 21) .......... 67
Plate 22. Ti lo pa (Mahasiddha Tilopa “The Renowned Renunciate”) (CSP 22) .......... 69
Plate 23. Ba ta pa (Mahasiddha Catrapa “The Fortunate Beggar”) (CSP 23) .......... 71
Plate 24. Bra ta pa (Mahasiddha Bhadrapa “The Auspicious Brahmin”) (CSP 24) .......... 73
Plate 25. Da khan di (Mahasiddha Dukhandi “The Rag Man”) (CSP 25) .......... 75
Plate 26. Rud pu ka (Mahasiddha Ayogi ? “The Useless”) (CSP 26?) .......... 77
Plate 27. Par ka li (Mahasiddha Kalapa ? “The Handsome Yogi”) (CSP 27?) .......... 79
Plate 28. Do mi bri (Mahasiddha Dhob¡pa “The Washerman”) (CSP 28) .......... 81
Plate 29. Kar ka na (Mahasiddha Kankana “The Master of the Bracelet”) (CSP 29) .......... 83
Plate 30. Ka ma pa (Mahasiddha Kambala “The Wool Garment Wearer”) (CSP 30) .......... 85
Plate 31. De ki pa (Mahasiddha Dengipa “The Courtesan’s Slave”) (CSP 31) .......... 87
Plate 32. Sha de pa (Mahåsiddha Bhandepa ? “The Compassionate God”) (CSP 32?) .......... 89
Plate 33. Te ru sha (“The Turk”) (unidentified mahasiddha) .......... 91
Plate 34. Ma ri pa (Mahasiddha Mahipa “The Great Man”) (CSP 37) .......... 93
Plate 35. Bu ta pa (unidentified mahasiddha) .......... 95
Plate 36. So dra bo dhe (unidentified mahasiddha) .......... 97
Plate 37. Dril bu pa (Mahasiddha Ghantapa “The Bell-Ringer”) (CSP 52) .......... 99
Plate 38. Ra hu la (Mahasiddha Rahula “The Rejuvenated”) (CSP 47) .......... 101
Plate 39. Sarba de (unidentified mahasiddha) .......... 103
Plate 40. Sa ta pa (unidentified mahasiddha) .......... 105
Plate 41. Mi ka la [I] (unidentified mahasiddha) .......... 107
Plate 42. Da ma pa (Mahasiddha Dharmapa [I] “The Dharma Man”) (CSP 36) .......... 109
Plate 43. Dan ta pa (Mahasiddha Tantepa “The Gambler”) (CSP 33) .......... 111
Plate 44. Pa dzu ki (Mahasiddha Jogipa “The Pilgrim”) (CSP 53) .......... 113
Plate 45. Ku ra (Mahasiddha Bhusuku “The Lazy Monk”) (CSP 41) .......... 115
Plate 46. Ka ma ri (Mahasiddha Kamparipa “The Blacksmith”) (CSP 45) .......... 117
Plate 47. Do khan di (Mahasiddha Dhokaripa “The Vessel Man”) (CSP 49) .......... 119
Plate 48. Kam pa ma (unidentified mahasiddha) .......... 121
Plate 49. Gu dri ti (Mahasiddha Godhuripa “The Bird-Catcher”) (CSP 55) .......... 123
Plate 50. Li kra mi (unidentified mahasiddha) .......... 125
Plate 51. Dza pa ka (Mahasiddha Lucikapa “The Fugitive”) (CSP 56) .......... 127
Plate 52. Mi dri ni (Mahasiddha Medhini “The Farmer”) (CSP 50) .......... 129
Plate 53. Ku ku ri (Mahasiddha Kukkuripa “The Dog-Lover”) (CSP 34) .......... 131
Plate 54. Ni gun (Mahasiddha Nirgunapa “The Halfwit”) (CSP 57) .......... 133
No. G55 Mahasiddha painting is destroyed (inscription illegible) .......... 134
No. G56 Tsha pa ri (Mahasiddha Carbaripa “The Petrifier”) (painting destroyed) (CSP 64) .......... 135
Plate 57. Ka dzo pa (Mahasiddha Kucipa “The Goitre-Necked Ascetic”) (CSP 35) .......... 137
Plate 58. Dra ma pa (Mahasiddha Acinta “The Inconceivable”) (CSP 38) .......... 139
Plate 59. Na li la (Mahasiddha Nalinapa “The Lotus-Picker”) (CSP 40) .......... 141
Plate 60. Tsa da ka (Mahasiddha Celukapa “The Great Sleeper”) (CSP 54) .......... 143
Plate 61. Bri ksa na (Mahasiddha Bhiksanapa “The Man with Two Teeth”) (CSP 61) .......... 145
Plate 62. De pa na (unidentified mahasiddha) .......... 147
No. G63 Mahasiddha painting is destroyed (inscription illegible) 146
Plate 64. Du la ma ni (unidentified mahasiddha) .......... 149
Plate 65. Mi ka la [II] (unidentified mahasiddha) .......... 151
Plate 66. Sa dra zhabs (“The Earth-Like-One”) (unidentified mahasiddha) .......... 153
Plate 67. Ka pa li (Mahasiddha Kapalapa “The Skull-Cup-Bearer”) (CSP 72) .......... 155
Plate 68. De pan (unidentified mahasiddha) .......... 157
Plate 69. Ka na kha ya (unidentified mahasiddha) .......... 159
Plate 70. Ka ya la (unidentified mahasiddha) .......... 161
Plate 71. Ka ta ra (unidentified mahasiddha) .......... 163
Plate 72. Dra nu ri (unidentified mahasiddha) .......... 165
Plate 73. Sa ka pa (Mahasiddha Sakara/Saroruha “The Lotus Born”) (CSP 74) .......... 167
Plate 74. Me dra se (unidentified mahasiddha) .......... 169
Plate 75. Sa pa dra ga (Mahasiddha Sarvabhaksa “The One Who Eats Everything”) (CSP 75) .......... 171
Plate 76. Na ga bro di (Mahasiddha Nagabodhi “The Cured Thief”) (CSP 76) 173
Plate 77. Ra ri pa (Mahasiddha Darikapa “The Temple Prostitute’s Slave”) (CSP 77) .......... 175
Plate 78. Pu ta pa (Mahasiddha Putalipa “The Icon-Bearer”) (CSP 78) .......... 177
Plate 79. Sa ra na (unidentified mahasiddha) .......... 179
Plate 80. Ka gi la (Mahssiddha Kokilipa “The Cuckoo-Sound Hearer”) (CSP 80) .......... 181
Plate 81. Sa ra gi (unidentified female Yogini Siddha) .......... 183
Plate 82. Ni la kha pa (unidentified mahasiddha)” (GsB 48?) .......... 185
Plate 83. Sa chu ta (unidentified female Yogini Siddha) .......... 187
Plate 84. Na ra pa (unidentified female Yogini Siddha) .......... 189
Plate 85. Gling ras pa Padma rdo rje (1128–1188) a ’Brug pa bKa’ brgyud master .......... 191
Plate 86. Pan chen Shri sh’a ri putra, abbot of Bodhgaya (Northern India) .......... 193
CSP = Abhayadatta. Caturasiti-siddha-pravrtti (“The Lives of the Eighty-four Siddhas”, Sanskrit text, 11th/12th century). This text is apparently known only through Tibetan translations.
GLOSSARY .......... 196
For the convenience of the reader, Tibetan and Sanskrit names are here, in the same index, arranged according to the English alphabet. The Tibetan names are listed according to their lexicographic capitalized letters. (Skt.) = Sanskrit; (Tib.) = Tibetan.
AS = Astasahasrika Pantheon .......... 213
CBI = Chandra, Lokesh. Buddhist Iconography .......... 213
CSP = Caturasiti-siddha-pravrtti .......... 213
G = Inscribed and illustrated Gyantse paintings .......... 213
GsB = Grub thob brgyad cu rtsa bzhi’i gsol ’debs [Budapest] .......... 213
GsS = Grub thob brgyad cu rtsa bzhi’i gsol ’debs [Schmid] .......... 213
KL = Klong rdol bla ma. The Collected Works of Longdol Lama .......... 213
Nar = Grub thob brgyad cu rtsa bzhi’i cha lugs ’dzin tshul. [sNar thang edition] .......... 213
RtB = Grub thob brgyad cu rtsa bzhi’i rtogs pa snying po zhes bya pa [Budapest] .......... 213
RtP = Grub thob brgyad cu rtsa bzhi’i rtogs pa’i snying po shes bhya [Budapest] .......... 213
RtP = Grub thob brgyad cu rtsa bzhi’i rtogs pa’i snying po shes bhya ba. [Tibetan Tripi†aka, Peking Edition] .......... 213
Rtsk = Grub thob brgyad cu rtsa bzhi’i sku brnyan .......... 213
STh = Set of inscribed thangkas. Ethnographical Museum Stockholm .......... 213

Edition Notes

Includes bibliographical references and index.

The Physical Object

Pagination p. 224 pages with 91 colour illustrations. Includes plan of temple, glossary, bibliography, concordance tables, and index
Dimensions 280 x 230 mm

ID Numbers

Open Library OL3416526M
ISBN 10 1932476245
ISBN 13 9781932476248
Goodreads 1282774


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