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Energy and Thermal Time Constant in Buildings

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Last edited by Joseph Nowarski
July 14, 2016 | History

Energy and Thermal Time Constant in Buildings

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Publish Date
Publisher
Joseph Nowarski
Language
English
Pages
192

Design of building's exterior walls has important influence on energy consumption, building cost and thermal comfort. It influences also heating and cooling devices size.This work analyses if the Thermal Time Constant method may be applied to determine energy quality of the building as an alternative to the dynamic simulation program. The Thermal Time Constant method is much easier, simpler and faster than computer dynamic simulation program.Higher Thermal Time Constant (TTC) moderates the difference between day and night in the room, flattening the room temperatures extremes caused by ambient temperature and solar energy.Disregarding TTC leads to wrong decisions, wrong design, waste of money for building's construction and increased energy consumption.

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Book Details


Published in

Jerusalem, Israel

Table of Contents

1 Content
1.1 List of Tables, Charts, Diagrams and Formula
2 Executive Summary
3 Glossary
4 Introduction
5 Building Energy Simulation and Optimization - BESO
5.1 The Dynamic Simulation Program
5.2 Air Conditioning System
5.3 Space Heating System
5.4 Maximum Power
6 Building details
7 Thermal Time Constant - TTC
7.1 Meaning of the Time Constant
7.2 TTC - The Formula
8 Benchmark
8.1 Simulation results of examples
8.2 Energy consumption of the examples
8.3 Rating of the results
9 20cm Concrete Layer
9.1 Energy Consumption
9.1.1 Table – Thermal properties of the examples
9.1.2 Energy consumption - Jerusalem
9.1.2.1 Simulation results of examples
9.1.2.2 Energy Consumption
9.1.3 Energy consumption – Tel Aviv
9.1.3.1 Simulation results of examples
9.1.3.2 Energy Consumption
9.1.4 Energy Consumption – Rating of the Results
9.1.4.1 Formula - Rating according to energy consumption
9.1.4.2 Jerusalem
9.1.4.3 Tel Aviv
9.1.4.4 Combined Rating Index for Jerusalem and Tel Aviv
9.2 Room Temperatures
9.2.1 Room Temperatures – Rating of the Results
9.2.2 Typical weather conditions
9.2.2.1 Jerusalem
9.2.2.1.1 Maximum Room Temperature in Jerusalem
9.2.2.1.2 Average Room Temperature in Jerusalem
9.2.2.1.3 Combined Rating Index of Maximum and Average Room Temperature
9.2.2.2 Tel Aviv
9.2.2.2.1 Maximum Room Temperature in Tel Aviv
9.2.2.2.2 Average Room Temperature in Tel Aviv
9.2.3 Extreme summer weather conditions
9.2.3.1 Jerusalem
9.2.3.1.1 Maximum Room Temperatures
9.2.3.1.2 Average Room Temperatures
9.2.3.1.3 Combined Maximum and Average Room Temperatures Rating
9.2.3.2 Tel Aviv
9.2.3.2.1 Maximum Room Temperatures
9.2.3.2.2 Average Room Temperatures
9.2.3.2.3 Combined Maximum and Average Temperatures
10 20cm Concrete Layer
10.1 Energy Consumption
10.1.1 Table – Thermal Properties of the examples
10.1.2 Energy consumption - Jerusalem
10.1.3 Energy consumption – Tel Aviv
10.1.3.1 Simulation results of examples
10.1.3.2 Energy Consumption
10.1.4 Energy consumption - Combined Results for Jerusalem and Tel Aviv
10.2 Room Temperatures
10.2.1 Jerusalem
10.2.1.1 Maximum Room Temperatures
10.2.1.2 Average Room Temperatures - Jerusalem
10.2.1.3 Maximum and Average Temperatures
10.2.2 Tel Aviv
10.2.2.1 Maximum Temperatures
10.2.2.2 Average Room Temperatures – Tel Aviv
10.2.2.3 Combined Rating Index of Maximum and Average Room Temperature
10.2.3 Combined Rating – Jerusalem and Tel Aviv
11 2cm Outer Insulation
11.1 Energy Consumption
11.1.1 Table – Thermal Properties of the examples
11.1.2 Jerusalem
11.1.2.1 Simulation results of examples
11.1.2.2 Energy Consumption
11.1.3 Tel Aviv
11.1.3.1 Simulation results of examples
11.1.3.2 Energy Consumption
11.1.4 Energy Consumption – Rating of the Results
11.1.4.1 Jerusalem
11.1.4.2 Tel Aviv
11.1.4.3 Combined Rating Index for Jerusalem and Tel Aviv
11.2 Room Temperatures
11.2.1 Typical weather conditions
11.2.1.1 Jerusalem
11.2.1.1.1 Formula - Rating Index of maximum room temperature
11.2.1.1.2 Maximum Room Temperatures
11.2.1.1.3 Average Room Temperature in Jerusalem
11.2.1.2 Tel Aviv
11.2.1.2.1 Maximum Room Temperatures in Tel Aviv
11.2.1.2.2 Average Room Temperature in Tel Aviv
11.2.2 Extreme summer weather conditions
11.2.2.1 Jerusalem
11.2.2.1.1 Maximum Temperatures
11.2.2.1.2 Average Room Temperatures
11.2.2.1.3 Combined Maximum and Average Room Temperatures
11.2.2.2 Tel Aviv
11.2.2.2.1 Maximum Room Temperatures
11.2.2.2.2 Average Room Temperatures
11.2.2.2.3 Combined Maximum and Average Room Temperatures
12 All Examples
12.1 Energy Consumption
12.1.1 Jerusalem
12.1.2 Tel Aviv
12.1.3 Combined Rating for Jerusalem and Tel Aviv
12.2 Room Temperatures
12.2.1 Jerusalem
12.2.2 Tel Aviv
12.2.3 Combined Rating for Jerusalem and Tel Aviv
12.3 Energy and Temperature Combined Rating Index
12.3.1 Performance Index - Energy and Temperature Combined Rating Index (CET)
12.3.2 Performance Index (CET) without inner side insulation
12.3.3 Performance Index (CET) up to 20cm concrete layer
13 TTC Concrete Energy Equivalent
13.1 Example 0-20-1
13.2 Example 0-35-2
14 Conclusion
14.1 Energy Conservation
14.1.1.1 Table - All examples sorted according to R
14.1.2 Case 1
14.1.2.1 Table – Thermal properties of Case 1
14.1.2.2 Table – Energy saving in Case 1 Jerusalem
14.1.2.3 Table – Energy saving in Case 1 Tel Aviv
14.1.2.4 Table – Energy saving in Case 1 Jerusalem and Tel Aviv
14.1.3 Case 2
14.1.3.1 Table – Thermal properties of Case 2
14.1.3.2 Table – Energy saving in Case 2 Jerusalem
14.1.3.3 Table – Energy saving in Case 2 Tel Aviv
14.1.3.4 Table – Energy saving in Case 1 Jerusalem and Tel Aviv
14.2 Thermal Comfort
14.2.1 Case 1
14.2.1.1 Table – Improvement of climate comfort in Case 1 Jerusalem
14.2.1.2 Table – Improvement of climate comfort in Case 1 Tel Aviv
14.2.2 Case 2
14.2.2.1 Table – Improvement of climate comfort in Case 2 Jerusalem
14.2.2.2 Table – Improvement of climate comfort in Case 2 Tel Aviv
14.3 Other Conclusions
15 References
16 Publication Documentation Page
1.1 List of Tables, Charts, Diagrams and Formula
5 Building Energy Simulation and Optimization - BESO
5.4 Maximum Power
5.4.1 Table – Maximum power
6 Building details
6.1 Diagram – Apartment layout
6.2 Diagram – Cross-section of the exterior wall
7 Thermal Time Constant - TTC
7.1 Meaning of the Time Constant
7.1.1 Formula – Time Constant Value
7.2 TTC - The Formula
7.2.1 Formula - TTC
8 Benchmark
8.1 Simulation results of examples
8.2 Energy consumption of the examples
8.2.1 Table – Energy consumption of the examples
8.3 Rating of the results
8.3.1 Table – Rating of Energy Consumption
9 20cm Concrete Layer
9.1 Energy Consumption
9.1.1 Table – Thermal properties of the examples
9.1.2 Energy consumption - Jerusalem
9.1.2.1 Simulation results of examples
9.1.2.1.1 Table - Jerusalem – 4cm outer side insulation (ID-3-0-20-4)
9.1.2.1.2 Table - Jerusalem – 3cm outer side insulation (ID:3-0-20-3)
9.1.2.1.3 Table - Jerusalem – 2cm inner and outer sides insulation (ID:3-2-20-2)
9.1.2.1.4 Table - Jerusalem – 4cm inner side insulation (ID:3-4-20-0)
9.1.2.1.5 Table - Jerusalem – 2cm outer side insulation (ID:3-0-20-2)
9.1.2.1.6 Table - Jerusalem – 2cm inner side insulation (ID:3-2-20-0)
9.1.2.1.7 Table - Jerusalem – no insulation (ID:3-0-20-0)
9.1.2.1.8 Simulation results
9.1.2.2 Energy Consumption
9.1.2.2.1 Table – Simulation results for various insulation position and thickness in Jerusalem (selected examples)
9.1.2.2.2 Table – Energy consumption for various insulation position and thickness in Jerusalem (all examples)
9.1.2.2.3 Chart – Energy consumption, kWh/m2,y - Jerusalem
9.1.3 Energy consumption – Tel Aviv
9.1.3.1 Simulation results of examples
9.1.3.1.1 Table - Tel Aviv – 4cm outer side insulation (ID:1-0-20-4)
9.1.3.1.2 Table - Tel Aviv – 3cm outer side insulation (ID:1-0-20-3)
9.1.3.1.3 Table - Tel Aviv – 2cm inner and outer sides insulation (ID:1-2-20-2)
9.1.3.1.4 Table - Tel Aviv – 4cm inner side insulation (ID:1-4-20-0)
9.1.3.1.5 Table - Tel Aviv – 2cm outer side insulation (ID:1-0-20-2)
9.1.3.1.6 Table - Tel Aviv – 2cm inner side insulation (ID:1-2-20-0)
9.1.3.1.7 Table - Tel Aviv – no insulation (ID:1-0-20-0)
9.1.3.2 Energy Consumption
9.1.3.2.1 Table – Simulation results for various insulation position and thickness in Tel Aviv (selected examples)
9.1.3.2.2 Table – Simulation results for various insulation position and thickness in Tel Aviv (all examples)
9.1.3.2.3 Chart – Energy consumption, kWh/y - Tel Aviv
9.1.4 Energy Consumption – Rating of the Results
9.1.4.1 Formula - Rating according to energy consumption
9.1.4.2 Jerusalem
9.1.4.2.1 Table - Rating according to Total Energy Consumption
9.1.4.2.2 Table – Rating according to Air Conditioning Energy Consumption
9.1.4.2.3 Table - Rating according to Space Heating Energy Consumption
9.1.4.3 Tel Aviv
9.1.4.3.1 Table - Rating according to Total Energy Consumption
9.1.4.3.2 Table – Rating according to Air Conditioning Energy Consumption
9.1.4.3.3 Table - Rating according to Space Heating Energy Consumption
9.1.4.4 Combined Rating Index for Jerusalem and Tel Aviv
9.1.4.4.1 Formula - Combined Energy Consumption Rating Index for Jerusalem and Tel Aviv
9.1.4.4.2 Table - Combined Energy Consumption Rating for Jerusalem and Tel Aviv
9.2 Room Temperatures
9.2.2 Typical weather conditions
9.2.2.1 Jerusalem
9.2.2.1.1 Maximum Room Temperature in Jerusalem
9.2.2.1.1.1 Formula - Rating Index of maximum room temperature
9.2.2.1.1.2 Table - Maximum Room#1 Temperature in Jerusalem
9.2.2.1.1.3 Table - Maximum Room#2 Temperature in Jerusalem
9.2.2.1.1.4 Table - Maximum Room Temperature Difference between rooms facing North and South
9.2.2.1.1.5 Combined Rating Index of maximum room temperature
9.2.2.1.1.5.1 Formula - Combined Rating Index of maximum room temperature
9.2.2.1.1.5.2 Table - Combined Rating Index of maximum room temperature
9.2.2.1.2 Average Room Temperature in Jerusalem
9.2.2.1.2.1 Formula - Rating Index of average room temperature
9.2.2.1.2.2 Table - Average Room#1 Temperature in Jerusalem
9.2.2.1.2.3 Table - Average Room#2 Temperature in Jerusalem
9.2.2.1.2.4 Table - Difference between the Rooms Average Temperature
9.2.2.1.2.5 Combined Rating Index of Average Room Temperature
9.2.2.1.2.5.1 Formula - Combined Rating Index of average room temperature
9.2.2.1.2.5.2 Table - Combined Rating Index of average room temperature
9.2.2.1.3 Combined Rating Index of Maximum and Average Room Temperature
9.2.2.1.3.1 Formula - Combined Rating Index of Maximum and Average Room Temperature
9.2.2.1.3.2 Table Combined Rating Index of Maximum and Average Room Temperature
9.2.2.2 Tel Aviv
9.2.2.2.1 Maximum Room Temperature in Tel Aviv
9.2.2.2.1.1 Table - Maximum Room#1 Temperature in Tel Aviv
9.2.2.2.1.2 Table - Maximum Room#2 Temperature in Tel Aviv
9.2.2.2.1.3 Table - Maximum Room Temperature Difference between rooms facing North and South
9.2.2.2.1.4 Table - Combined Rating Index of maximum room temperature
9.2.2.2.2 Average Room Temperature in Tel Aviv
9.2.2.2.2.1 Table - Average Room#1 Temperature in Tel Aviv
9.2.2.2.2.2 Table - Difference between Room#1 and Room#2 Average Temperature
9.2.2.2.2.3 Table - Combined Rating Index of average room temperature
9.2.2.2.2.4 Table - Combined Rating Index of Maximum and Average Room Temperature
9.2.2.2.2.5 Table - Combined Rating Index of Maximum and Average Room Temperature
9.2.2.3 Combined Index for Jerusalem and Tel Aviv
9.2.2.3.1 Formula - Combined Rating Index of Maximum and Average Room Temperature for Jerusalem and Tel Aviv
9.2.2.3.2 Table - Combined Rating Index of Maximum and Average Room Temperature for Jerusalem and Tel Aviv
9.2.3 Extreme summer weather conditions
9.2.3.1 Jerusalem
9.2.3.1.1 Maximum Room Temperatures
9.2.3.1.1.1 Table – Room#1 (North) Maximum Temperature
9.2.3.1.1.2 Table – Room#1 (North) Maximum Temperature for Typical and Extreme Weather Conditions
9.2.3.1.1.3 Table – Room#2 (South) Maximum Temperature
9.2.3.1.1.4 Table – Room#2 (South) Maximum Temperature for Typical and Extreme Weather Conditions
9.2.3.1.1.5 Table – Room#1 (North) and Room#2 (South) Maximum Temperatures
9.2.3.1.1.6 Table – Room#1 (North) and Room#2 (South) Maximum Temperatures Rating
9.2.3.1.2 Average Room Temperatures
9.2.3.1.2.1 Table – Room#1 (North) Average Temperature
9.2.3.1.2.2 Table – Room#1 (North) Average Temperature for Typical and Extreme Weather Conditions
9.2.3.1.2.3 Table – Room#2 (South) Average Temperatures
9.2.3.1.2.4 Table – Room#2 (South) Average Temperatures for Typical and Extreme Weather Conditions
9.2.3.1.2.5 Table – Room#1 (North) and Room#2 (South) Average Temperatures
9.2.3.1.2.6 Table – Room#1 (North) and Room#2 (South) Average Combined Temperatures Rating
9.2.3.1.3 Combined Maximum and Average Room Temperatures Rating
9.2.3.1.3.1 Table – Room#1 (North) All Temperatures
9.2.3.1.3.2 Table – Room#2 (South) All Temperatures
9.2.3.1.3.3 Table - Combined Rating Index of Typical and Extreme Temperatures
9.2.3.2 Tel Aviv
9.2.3.2.1 Maximum Room Temperatures
9.2.3.2.1.1 Table – Room#1 (North) Maximum Temperatures
9.2.3.2.1.2 Table – Room#1 (North) Maximum Temperatures for Typical and Extreme Weather Conditions
9.2.3.2.1.3 Table – Room#2 (South) Maximum Temperatures
9.2.3.2.1.4 Table – Room#2 (South) Maximum Temperatures for Typical and Extreme Weather Conditions
9.2.3.2.1.5 Table – Room#1 (North) and Room#2 (South) Maximum Temperatures
9.2.3.2.1.6 Table – Room#1 (North) and Room#2 (South) Combined Maximum Temperatures Rating
9.2.3.2.2 Average Room Temperatures
9.2.3.2.2.1 Table – Room#1 (North) Average Temperatures
9.2.3.2.2.2 Table – Room#1 (North) Average Temperatures for Typical and Extreme Weather Conditions
9.2.3.2.2.3 Table – Room#2 (South) Average Temperatures
9.2.3.2.2.4 Table – Room#2 (South) Average Temperatures for Typical and Extreme Weather Conditions
9.2.3.2.2.5 Table – Room#1 (North) and Room#2 (South) Average Temperatures
9.2.3.2.2.6 Table – Room#1 (North) and Room#2 (South) Average Combined Temperatures Rating
9.2.3.2.3 Combined Maximum and Average Temperatures
9.2.3.2.3.1 Table - Combined Rating Index of Maximum and Average Room Temperature
9.2.3.2.3.2 Table – Room#1 (North) All Temperatures
9.2.3.2.3.3 Table – Room#2 (South) All Temperatures
9.2.3.2.3.4 Table - Combined Rating Index of Typical and Extreme Weather Conditions
9.2.3.2.3.5 Table - Combined Rating Index for Jerusalem and Tel Aviv, Extreme Weather Conditions
9.2.3.2.3.6 Table - Combined Rating Index for Jerusalem and Tel Aviv, Typical and Extreme Weather Conditions
10 20cm Concrete Layer
10.1 Energy Consumption
10.1.1 Table – Thermal Properties of the examples
10.1.2 Energy consumption - Jerusalem
10.1.2.1 Simulation results of examples
10.1.2.1.1 Table - 20cm concrete layer and 10cm outer insulation (0-20-10)
10.1.2.1.2 Table - 20cm concrete layer and 9cm outer insulation (0-20-9)
10.1.2.1.3 Table - 20cm concrete layer and 8cm outer insulation (0-20-8)
10.1.2.1.4 Table - 20cm concrete layer and 7cm outer insulation (0-20-7)
10.1.2.1.5 Table - 20cm concrete layer and 6cm outer insulation (0-20-6)
10.1.2.1.6 Table - 20cm concrete layer and 5cm outer insulation (0-20-5)
10.1.2.1.7 Table - 20cm concrete layer and 4cm outer insulation (0-20-4)
10.1.2.1.8 Table - 20cm concrete layer and 3cm outer insulation (0-20-3)
10.1.2.1.9 Table - 20cm concrete layer and 2cm outer insulation (0-20-2)
10.1.2.1.10 Table - 20cm concrete layer and 1cm outer insulation (0-20-1)
10.1.2.1.11 Table - 20cm concrete layer and 0cm outer insulation (0-20-0)
10.1.2.2 Energy Consumption
10.1.2.2.1 Table – Energy consumption for various solutions in Jerusalem
10.1.2.2.2 Chart – Energy consumption, kWh/m2,y - Jerusalem
10.1.2.2.3 Table - Rating according to Total Energy Consumption
10.1.2.2.4 Table - Rating according to Air Conditioning Energy Consumption
10.1.2.2.5 Table - Rating according to Space Heating Energy Consumption
10.1.3 Energy consumption – Tel Aviv
10.1.3.1 Simulation results of examples
10.1.3.1.1 Table - 20cm concrete layer and 10cm outer insulation (0-20-10) - the benchmark
10.1.3.1.2 Table - 20cm concrete layer and 9cm outer insulation (0-20-9)
10.1.3.1.3 Table - 20cm concrete layer and 8cm outer insulation (0-20-8)
10.1.3.1.4 Table - 20cm concrete layer and 7cm outer insulation (0-20-7)
10.1.3.1.5 Table - 20cm concrete layer and 6cm outer insulation (0-20-6)
10.1.3.1.6 Table - 20cm concrete layer and 5cm outer insulation (0-20-5)
10.1.3.1.7 Table - 20cm concrete layer and 4cm outer insulation (0-20-4)
10.1.3.1.8 Table - 20cm concrete layer and 3cm outer insulation (0-20-3)
10.1.3.1.9 Table - 20cm concrete layer and 2cm outer insulation (0-20-2)
10.1.3.1.10 Table - 20cm concrete layer and 1cm outer insulation (0-20-1)
10.1.3.1.11 Table - 20cm concrete layer and 0cm outer insulation (0-20-0)
10.1.3.2 Energy Consumption
10.1.3.2.1 Table – Energy consumption for various solutions in Tel Aviv
10.1.3.2.2 Chart – Energy consumption, kWh/m2,y - Tel Aviv
10.1.3.2.3 Table - Rating according to Total Energy Consumption
10.1.3.2.4 Table - Rating according to Air Conditioning Energy Consumption
10.1.3.2.5 Table - Rating according to Space Heating Energy Consumption
10.1.3.2.6 Table – Contribution of Air Conditioning and Space Heating to Total Energy Consumption
10.1.4 Energy consumption - Combined Results for Jerusalem and Tel Aviv
10.1.4.1 Table - Rating according to Total Energy Consumption
10.1.4.2 Table - Rating according to Air Conditioning Energy Consumption
10.1.4.3 Table - Rating according to Space Heating Energy Consumption
10.1.4.4 Chart – Outer insulation of 20cm concrete exterior wall
10.2 Room Temperatures
10.2.1 Jerusalem
10.2.1.1 Maximum Room Temperatures
10.2.1.1.1 Table – Room#1 (North) Maximum Temperatures
10.2.1.1.2 Table – Room#2 (South) Maximum Temperatures
10.2.1.1.3 Table – Room#1 (North) and Room#2 (South) Maximum Temperatures
10.2.1.1.4 Table – Room#1 (North) and Room#2 (South) Combined Maximum Temperatures Rating
10.2.1.2 Average Room Temperatures - Jerusalem
10.2.1.2.1 Table – Room#1 (North) Average Temperatures
10.2.1.2.2 Table – Room#2 (South) Average Temperatures
10.2.1.2.3 Table – Room#1 (North) and Room#2 (South) Average Temperatures
10.2.1.2.4 Table – Room#1 (North) and Room#2 (South) Average Combined Temperatures Rating
10.2.1.3 Maximum and Average Temperatures
10.2.1.3.1 Table - Combined Rating Index of Maximum and Average Room Temperature
10.2.2 Tel Aviv
10.2.2.1 Maximum Temperatures
10.2.2.1.1 Table – Room#1 (North) Maximum Temperatures
10.2.2.1.2 Table – Room#2 (South) Maximum Temperatures
10.2.2.1.3 Table – Room#1 (North) and Room#2 (South) Maximum Temperatures
10.2.2.1.4 Table – Room#1 (North) and Room#2 (South) Combined Maximum Temperatures Rating
10.2.2.2 Average Room Temperatures – Tel Aviv
10.2.2.2.1 Table – Room#1 (North) Average Temperatures
10.2.2.2.2 Table – Room#2 (South) Average Temperatures
10.2.2.2.3 Table – Room#1 (North) and Room#2 (South) Average Temperatures
10.2.2.2.4 Table – Room#1 (North) and Room#2 (South) Average Combined Temperatures Rating
10.2.2.3 Combined Rating Index of Maximum and Average Room Temperature
10.2.2.3.1 Table - Combined Rating Index of Maximum and Average Room Temperatures
10.2.3 Combined Rating – Jerusalem and Tel Aviv
10.2.3.1 Table - Combined Temperature Rating Index for Jerusalem and Tel Aviv
10.2.3.2 Chart - Combined Temperature Rating Index for Jerusalem and Tel Aviv
10.3 Energy and Temperature Combined Rating
10.3.1 Formula – Correction Power Factor of Temperature Rating Index
10.3.2 Formula - Combined Energy and Temperature Rating Index
10.3.3 Table - Energy and Temperature Combined Rating Index
10.3.4 Chart - Energy and Temperature Combined Rating Index
11 2cm Outer Insulation
11.1 Energy Consumption
11.1.1 Table – Thermal Properties of the examples
11.1.2 Jerusalem
11.1.2.1 Simulation results of examples
11.1.2.1.1 Table - Jerusalem – 0cm concrete layer thickness (ID:3-0-0-2)
11.1.2.1.2 Table - Jerusalem – 10cm concrete layer thickness (ID:3-0-10-2)
11.1.2.1.3 Table - Jerusalem – 15cm concrete layer thickness (ID:3-0-15-2)
11.1.2.1.4 Table - Jerusalem – 20cm concrete layer thickness (ID:3-0-20-2)
11.1.2.1.5 Table - Jerusalem – 25cm concrete layer thickness (ID:3-0-25-2)
11.1.2.1.6 Table - Jerusalem – 30cm concrete layer thickness (ID:3-0-30-2)
11.1.2.1.7 Table - Jerusalem – 35cm concrete layer thickness (ID:3-0-35-2)
11.1.2.2 Energy Consumption
11.1.2.2.1 Table – Energy consumption for various concrete layer thicknesses in Jerusalem
11.1.2.2.2 Chart – Energy consumption, kWh/m2,y - Jerusalem
11.1.3 Tel Aviv
11.1.3.1 Simulation results of examples
11.1.3.1.1 Table - Tel Aviv – 0cm concrete layer thickness (ID:1-0-0-2)
11.1.3.1.2 Table - Tel Aviv – 10cm concrete layer thickness (ID:1-0-10-2)
11.1.3.1.3 Table - Tel Aviv – 15cm concrete layer thickness (ID:1-0-15-2)
11.1.3.1.4 Table - Tel Aviv – 20cm concrete layer thickness (ID:1-0-20-2)
11.1.3.1.5 Table - Tel Aviv – 25cm concrete layer thickness (ID:1-0-25-2)
11.1.3.1.6 Table - Tel Aviv – 30cm concrete layer thickness (ID:1-0-30-2)
11.1.3.1.7 Table - Tel Aviv – 35cm concrete layer thickness (ID:1-0-35-2)
11.1.3.2 Energy Consumption
11.1.3.2.1 Table – Energy consumption for various concrete layer thicknesses in Tel Aviv
11.1.3.2.2 Chart – Energy consumption, kWh/m2,y - Tel Aviv
11.1.4 Energy Consumption – Rating of the Results
11.1.4.1 Jerusalem
11.1.4.1.1 Table - Rating according to Total Energy Consumption
11.1.4.1.2 Table – Rating according to Air Conditioning Energy Consumption
11.1.4.1.3 Table – Rating according to Space Heating Energy Consumption
11.1.4.2 Tel Aviv
11.1.4.2.1 Table – Rating according to Total Energy Consumption
11.1.4.2.2 Table – Rating according to Air Conditioning Energy Consumption
11.1.4.2.3 Table – Rating according to Space Heating Energy Consumption
11.1.4.3 Combined Rating Index for Jerusalem and Tel Aviv
11.1.4.3.1 Table - Combined Energy Consumption Rating Index for Jerusalem and Tel Aviv
11.1.4.3.2 Table - Combined Air Conditioning Energy Consumption Rating Index for Jerusalem and Tel Aviv
11.1.4.3.3 Table - Combined Space Heating Energy Consumption Rating Index for Jerusalem and Tel Aviv
11.2 Room Temperatures
11.2.1 Typical weather conditions
11.2.1.1 Jerusalem
11.2.1.1.1 Formula - Rating Index of maximum room temperature
11.2.1.1.2 Maximum Room Temperatures
11.2.1.1.2.1 Table - Maximum Room#1 Temperature in Jerusalem
11.2.1.1.2.2 Table - Maximum Room#2 Temperature in Jerusalem
11.2.1.1.2.3 Table - -Maximum Room Temperature Difference between rooms facing North and South
11.2.1.1.2.4 Table - Combined Rating Index of maximum room temperatures
11.2.1.1.3 Average Room Temperature in Jerusalem
11.2.1.1.3.1 Table - Average Room#1 Temperature in Jerusalem
11.2.1.1.3.2 Table - Average Room#2 Temperature in Jerusalem
11.2.1.1.3.3 Table - Combined Rating Index of average room temperature
11.2.1.1.3.4 Table Combined Rating Index of Maximum and Average Room Temperature in Jerusalem
11.2.1.2 Tel Aviv
11.2.1.2.1 Maximum Room Temperatures in Tel Aviv
11.2.1.2.1.1 Table - Maximum Room#1 Temperature in Tel Aviv
11.2.1.2.1.2 Table - Maximum Room#2 Temperature in Tel Aviv
11.2.1.2.1.3 Table - -Maximum Room Temperature Difference between rooms facing North and South
11.2.1.2.1.4 Table - Combined Rating Index of maximum room temperature
11.2.1.2.2 Average Room Temperature in Tel Aviv
11.2.1.2.2.1 Table - Average Room#1 Temperature in Tel Aviv
11.2.1.2.2.2 Table - Average Room#2 Temperature in Tel Aviv
11.2.1.2.2.3 Table - Average temperature difference between the rooms
11.2.1.2.2.4 Table - Combined Rating Index of average room temperature
11.2.1.2.2.5 Table - Combined Rating Index of Maximum and Average Room Temperature
11.2.1.2.2.6 Table - Combined Rating Index of Maximum and Average Room Temperature for Typical Conditions Jerusalem and Tel Aviv
11.2.2 Extreme summer weather conditions
11.2.2.1 Jerusalem
11.2.2.1.1 Maximum Temperatures
11.2.2.1.1.1 Table Maximum Temperature Room#1 North
11.2.2.1.1.2 Table - Maximum Temperature Room#1 North: Extreme and Typical Weather Conditions
11.2.2.1.1.3 Table Maximum Temperature Room#2 South
11.2.2.1.1.4 Table - Maximum Temperature Room#2 South: Extreme and Typical Weather Conditions
11.2.2.1.1.5 Table - Maximum Temperature Room#1 and Room#2
11.2.2.1.1.6 Table – Extreme Weather Conditions Jerusalem, Maximum Temperature Room#1 and Room#2 Rating
11.2.2.1.2 Average Room Temperatures
11.2.2.1.2.1 Table - Average Temperature Room#1 North
11.2.2.1.2.2 Table - Extreme and Typical Average Temperature Room#1 North
11.2.2.1.2.3 Table - Average Temperature Room#2 South
11.2.2.1.2.4 Table - Extreme and Typical Average Temperature Room#2 South
11.2.2.1.2.5 Table – Extreme Weather Conditions Jerusalem, Average Temperature Room#1 and Room#2 Rating
11.2.2.1.3 Combined Maximum and Average Room Temperatures
11.2.2.1.3.1 Table - Combined Rating Index of Maximum and Average Room Temperature, Extreme Conditions Jerusalem
11.2.2.1.3.2 Table – Room#1 Temperatures
11.2.2.1.3.3 Table – Room#2 Temperatures
11.2.2.1.3.4 Table - Combined Rating Index of Typical and Extreme Temperatures, Jerusalem
11.2.2.2 Tel Aviv
11.2.2.2.1 Maximum Room Temperatures
11.2.2.2.1.1 Table Maximum Temperature Room#1 North
11.2.2.2.1.2 Table - Maximum Temperature Room#1 North: Extreme and Typical Weather Conditions
11.2.2.2.1.3 Table - Maximum Temperature Room#2 South
11.2.2.2.1.4 Table - Maximum Temperature Room#2 South: Extreme and Typical Weather Conditions
11.2.2.2.1.5 Table - Maximum Temperature Room#1 and Room#2
11.2.2.2.1.6 Table – Extreme Weather Conditions Tel Aviv, Maximum Temperature Room#1 and Room#2 Rating
11.2.2.2.2 Average Room Temperatures
11.2.2.2.2.1 Table - Average Temperatures Room#1 North
11.2.2.2.2.2 Table - Extreme and Typical Average Temperature Room#1 North
11.2.2.2.2.3 Table - Average Temperature Room#2 South
11.2.2.2.2.4 Table - Extreme and Typical Average Temperature Room#2 South
11.2.2.2.2.5 Table – Extreme Weather Conditions Tel Aviv, Average Temperature Room#1 and Room#2 Rating
11.2.2.2.3 Combined Maximum and Average Room Temperatures
11.2.2.2.3.1 Table - Combined Rating Index of Maximum and Average Room Temperature, Extreme Conditions, Tel Aviv
11.2.2.2.3.2 Table – Room#1 Temperatures
11.2.2.2.3.3 Table – Room#2 Temperatures
11.2.2.2.3.4 Table - Combined Rating Index of Typical and Extreme Conditions, Tel Aviv
11.2.2.2.3.5 Table - Combined Rating Index of Maximum and Average Room Temperature for Extreme Conditions Jerusalem and Tel Aviv
12 All Examples
12.1 Energy Consumption
12.1.1 Jerusalem
12.1.1.1 Table - Sort according to Total Energy Consumption
12.1.1.2 Table - Sort according to TTC
12.1.2 Tel Aviv
12.1.2.1 Table - Sort according to Total Energy Consumption
12.1.2.2 Table - Sort according to TTC
12.1.3 Combined Rating for Jerusalem and Tel Aviv
12.1.3.1 Table - Sort according to Total Energy Consumption
12.1.3.2 Table - Sort according to TTC
12.1.3.3 Chart – TTC and Combined Energy Consumption Index
12.2 Room Temperatures
12.2.1 Jerusalem
12.2.1.1 Table - Sort according to Temperature Index
12.2.1.2 Table - Sort according to TTC
12.2.2 Tel Aviv
12.2.2.1 Table - Sort according to Temperature Index
12.2.2.2 Table - Sort according to TTC
12.2.3 Combined Rating for Jerusalem and Tel Aviv
12.2.3.1 Table - Sort according to Temperature Index
12.2.3.2 Table - Sort according to TTC
12.2.3.3 Chart – TTC and Combined Temperature Index
12.3 Energy and Temperature Combined Rating Index
12.3.1.1 Formula – Correction Power Factor of Temperature Rating Index
12.3.1.2 Formula - Combined Energy and Temperature Rating Index
12.3.2 Performance Index - Energy and Temperature Combined Rating Index (CET)
12.3.2.1 Table - Sort according to Performance Index (CET)
12.3.2.2 Table - Sort according to TTC
12.3.2.3 Chart - Energy and Temperature Combined Rating Index (Performance Index)
12.3.3 Performance Index (CET) without inner side insulation
12.3.3.1 Table - Performance Index (CET) without inner side insulation, sort according to CET
12.3.3.2 Table - Performance Index (CET) without inner side insulation, sort according to TTC
12.3.3.3 Chart - Performance Index (CET) without inner side insulation
12.3.4 Performance Index (CET) up to 20cm concrete layer
12.3.4.1 Table - Performance Index (CET) up to 20cm concrete layer, sort according to CET
12.3.4.2 Table - Performance Index (CET) up to 20cm concrete layer, sort according to TTC
12.3.4.3 Chart - Performance Index (CET) up to 20cm concrete layer
14 Conclusion
14.1 Energy Conservation
14.1.1.1 Table - All examples sorted according to R
14.1.2 Case 1
14.1.2.1 Table – Thermal properties of Case 1
14.1.2.2 Table – Energy saving in Case 1 Jerusalem
14.1.2.3 Table – Energy saving in Case 1 Tel Aviv
14.1.2.4 Table – Energy saving in Case 1 Jerusalem and Tel Aviv
14.1.3 Case 2
14.1.3.1 Table – Thermal properties of Case 2
14.1.3.2 Table – Energy saving in Case 2 Jerusalem
14.1.3.3 Table – Energy saving in Case 2 Tel Aviv
14.1.3.4 Table – Energy saving in Case 1 Jerusalem and Tel Aviv
14.2 Thermal Comfort
14.2.1 Case 1
14.2.1.1 Table – Improvement of climate comfort in Case 1 Jerusalem
14.2.1.2 Table – Improvement of climate comfort in Case 1 Tel Aviv
14.2.2 Case 2
14.2.2.1 Table – Improvement of climate comfort in Case 2 Jerusalem
14.2.2.2 Table – Improvement of climate comfort in Case 2 Tel Aviv

The Physical Object

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eBook
Number of pages
192

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OL25933215M
Amazon ID (ASIN)
B01F18XGQK
Google
YFIYDAAAQBAJ

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History

Download catalog record: RDF / JSON / OPDS | Wikipedia citation
July 14, 2016 Edited by Joseph Nowarski Edited without comment.
July 14, 2016 Edited by Joseph Nowarski Added new cover
July 14, 2016 Created by Joseph Nowarski Added new book.