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A Translation Of The Epistles Of Clement Of Rome, Polycarp, And Ignatius

and of the apologies of Justin Martyr and Tertullian

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Cover of: A Translation of the Epistles of Clement of Rome, Polycarp, and Ignatius; and of the Apologies of Justin Martyr and Tertullian:
Cover of: A Translation Of The Epistles Of Clement Of Rome, Polycarp, And Ignatius
Cover of: A Translation Of The Epistles Of Clement Of Rome, Polycarp, And Ignatius
Cover of: A Translation of the Epistles of Clement of Rome, Polycarp, and Ignatius; and of the Apologies of Justin Martyr and Tertullian:

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A Translation Of The Epistles Of Clement Of Rome, Polycarp, And Ignatius

and of the apologies of Justin Martyr and Tertullian

This edition published in by Cambridge [Engl.] J. & J.J. Deighton, London : J.G. & F. Rivington in Cambridge, England.


Table of Contents

CONTENTS.
PART I.
THE EPISTLE OF CLEMENT TO THE CORINTHIANS.
Chap. i. ii. Clement commends the Corinthians for their order and piety before their schism began 1
iii. The origin of their strife 3
iv. — vi. He shows, by numerous examples, that envy and strife have been the fruitful cause of many evils 4 - 7
vii. viii. He exhorts them to look up to the rule of their high calling, and displays the promises of mercy made to the penitent 7 — 8
ix. — xii. He refers them to the instances of
Noah 9
Abraham —
Lot 11
Rahab —
xiii. — xv. And exhorts the Corinthians to follow these examples in humility, meekness, and godliness, according to the precepts of Scripture 13 — 15
xvi. He refers to the example of Jesus Christ, who came in great humility 15
xvii. xviii. And to Elijah, Elisha, Ezekiel, Job, Daniel and David 18
xix. And thence exhorts them to orderly obedience. 20
xx. He shews that order is the principle of the Universe 21
xxi. He exhorts them to obedience, in compliance
with the will of God ; who is ever present 22
xxii. And enforces his advice by an appeal to the Scriptures 23
xxiii. The promises and threatenings of God will surely and speedily come to pass 21
xxiv. — xxvi. The Resurrection is certain. It is illustrated by natural changes, as those of day and night : and by the example of the Phoenix 25 — 27
xxvii. Hence God is faithful, and will perform his promises 27
xxviii. — xxx. A further exhortation to obedience, purity, humility, and moderation 28 — 30
xxxi. xxxii. The blessedness of those who have been obedient 30
xxxiii. xxxiv. And an exhortation not to be weary in well doing; and to live in concord 31
xxxv. For this purpose God hath made to us many glorious promises 33
xxxvi. And given us our great High Priest, Jesus Christ 36
xxxvii. — xxxix. The natural constitution of human society teaches us the necessity of different orders of men 37
xl. And God hath accordingly appointed every thing to be done decently and in order in the Church 39
xli. Hence he exhorts them to the observance of order 40
xlii. The orders of Ministers were established in the Church of Christ, by the Apostles, according to Divine command 41
xliii. Even as the priesthood was especially appointed by God, under the Jewish law 42
xliv. The Apostles foretold that contentions should arise respecting the ministry 43
xlv. He again refers them to the examples of obedience in the Scriptures 45
xlvi. And to the precepts therein contained 46
xlvii. Especially to the Epistle of St Paul to them 47
xlviii. The higher gifts a man may have, the more humble-minded he ought to be 48
xlix. Christian charity is shewn by obedience and Christian meekness 49
l. It is the gift of God, and must be sought for by prayer 50
li. He exhorts those who had caused these divisions to repent 51
lii. — liv. And again refers to the precepts and examples of Scripture 52
lv. And to other examples among the heathen 54
lvi. He recommends mutual prayer 55
lvii. And humiliation 57
lviii. — lx. He concludes with a commendation of the Corinthians to God ; and with a blessing upon them 58
THE EPISTLE OF POLYCARP TO THE PHILIPPIANS.
i. Polycarp congratulates the Philippians, on the reception which they gave the confessors of the faith of Christ 60
ii. Exhorts them to perseverance from the consideration of the resurrection : and reminds them of the precepts of Christ 61
iii. Polycarp assumes not the authority or wisdom of St. Paul, to whose Epistle to them he refers 62
iv. — vi. But exhorts them to the practice of various Christian duties, according to their several stations ; as husbands, deacons, young men, and elders 6S
vii. Whosoever confesses not that Christ is come in the flesh, is antichrist 65
viii. ix. He exhorts them to patience by the imitation of Christ, and of the Apostles and others 66
x. And to be stedfast in the faith 67
xi. Polycarp expresses his regret for the misconduct of Valens and his wife 68
xii. Recommends the study of the Scriptures, and sends them his blessing 69
xiii. xiv. He refers to the Epistles of Ignatius ; and desires to know if they have received any certain intelligence respecting him 70
THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS TO THE EPHESIANS.
i. Ignatius thanks the Ephesians for sending their Bishop Onesimus to meet him, as he was passing bound from Syria to Rome 72
ii. He congratulates them on the possession of other faithful servants, and exhorts them to obedience 73
iii. iv. He disclaims all personal superiority, but in charity recommends them to obey their Bishop and the Presbytery 74
v. vi. He expatiates upon the character of Onesimus, and the Episcopal authority generally 73
vii. He warns them of false teachers 77
viii. Commends the integrity of their faith 78
ix. And their refusal to listen to error —
x. xi. He exhorts to prayer and holiness, since the last times are at hand 79
xii. And contrasts his own condition with theirs 80
xiii. He recommends their frequent assembling 81
xiv. And exhorts to faith and charity —
xv. Unostentatious faith is better than unreal profession 82
xvi. xvii. He warns them against false doctrine 83
xviii. Expresses his willingness to die for the Cross of Christ
xix. The Prince of this world knew not the virginity of Mary, nor the birth of Christ, nor his death 84
xx. He purposes sending to them a second Epistle, declaring the faith more fully 85
xxi. Beseeches their prayers for the Church which is in Syria, and bids them farewell 86
EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS TO THE MAGNESIANS.
i. Ignatius salutes the Church at Magnesia 87
ii. Whose Bishop, Damas, he had seen 88
iii. iv. He exhorts them to reverence their Bishop, in obedience to the ordinance of God —
v. The difference of the faithful and the unfaithful 89
vi. vii. He exhorts them to be obedient to the Bishops, Presbyters, and Deacons, and to preserve the unity of the Church —
viii. — x. Warns them not to live according to the Jewish law ; but after Christ, who is our life 90 — 93
xi. Ignatius disclaims any personal authority 93
xii. Commends their faith —
xiii. Exhorts them to be established in the doctrines of Christ and the Apostles, in all obedience 94
xiv. xv. And concludes with intreating their prayers, and with a salutation
THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS TO THE TRALLIANS.
i. Ignatius commends the purity and godliness of the Trallians, of which he had been assured by their Bishop Polybius 95
ii. iii. Their obedience to their Bishops, the Presbytery, and the Deacons, without whom there is no Church 96
iv. v. He refrains from boasting, and from speaking of heavenly things —
vi. — viii. Exhorts them to avoid unsound doctrine ; and to continue in the Unity of the Church 98
ix. — xi. To stop their ears if any spake to them against Jesus Christ, or declared that he existed and suffered in appearance only 100
xii. xiii. He salutes them in his own name and that of the faithful who are at Smyrna and Ephesus
THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS TO THE ROMANS.
i. After a salutation to the Church at Rome, he recommends them not to interfere to hinder his martyrdom
ii. — iv. But to permit him to be offered up, as he was ready to be, for the sake of Christ; and to strengthen him with their prayers
v He mentions the evil treatment which he endured from the soldiers, on his passage from Syria to Rome
vi. But expresses his full determination to die for Christ
vii. And declares that the love of Christ in him had conquered all his earthly desires 109
viii. He again urges them not to prevent the accomplishment of his wishes 110
ix. Entreats their prayers for the Church of Syria —
x. And mentions with honour those who were with him 111
HE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS TO THE PHILADELPHIANS.
i. Ignatius recommends Church unity; praises their Bishop 112
ii. — iv. And exhorts them to flee divisions and false doctrines ; and to partake of one Eucharist 113
v. He entreats their prayers 114
vi. Warns them against Judaizing teachers 115
vii. Reminds them of his previous exhortations to obedience to the Bishop, Presbytery, and Deacons 116
viii. He warns them against those who preferred the writings of the Old Testament to the Gospel —
ix. And shews the excellence of the Gospel above the Law 117
x. He advises the Philadelphians to send a Deacon to congratulate the Church of Antioch, on the peace which they enjoyed 118
xi. And concludes with a salutation —
THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS TO THE SMYRNEANS.
i. Ignatius praises their immoveable faith in Christ who truly lived and suffered for us 120
ii. iii. As He also truly raised himself from the dead, and appeared to Peter and to many 121
iv. He warns them against heretics, and commands them to pray for them : although their conversion rests with Christ 123
v. Ignatius will not mention the names of those who hold erroneous opinions 124
vi. vii. But refers to their conduct, and refusal to partake of the Eucharist; and exhorts the Smyrneans to abstain from such men 125
viii. ix. And to follow their Bishop, Presbytery, and Deacons, according to God's ordinance 126
x. He commends them for receiving Philo, and Rheus 127
xi. Glories in that he is counted worthy to suffer : recommends them to send to congratulate the Syrian Church, for the peace which it enjoyed 128
xii. xiii. And concludes with a salutation —
THE EPISTLE OF IGNATIUS TO POLYCARP.
i. He exhorts Polycarp to persevere in the diligent discharge of his Episcopal office 131
ii. To be wise as a serpent and harmless as a dove 132
iii. To endure all things 133
iv. To care for all —
v. He exhorts the married and single 134
vi. And adds advice to the whole Church 134
vii. Recommends messengers to be sent to Antioch 135
viii. Directs Polycarp to write to the Churches near him ; and concludes with a salutation 136
The Martyrdom of Ignatius 137
The circular Epistle of the Church of Smyrna, concerning the Martyrdom of Polycarp 147
PART II.
THE APOLOGY OF JUSTIN MARTYR.
i. Justin addresses the Emperor Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, and Lucius Verus 171
ii. And represents that their names and station required them to regard truth alone 172
iii. He demands that the charges against the Christians should be examined: that the Christians should be impartially treated, according as they deserved, and not be punished for a mere name 173
iv. Christianity ought not to be judged of, from the misconduct of some who only profess the name 176
v. Justin attributes the injustice of the heathens towards the Christians, to the instigation of demons 176
vi. And declares that the Christians worshipped only God, the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit 178
vii. He requires that the actions of all those accused should be examined 180
viii. The Christians suffer only because they dare not deny the truth 182
ix. And will not pay honour to false gods, and senseless idols 183
x. Knowing that God requires not material offerings, but purity and holiness of life ; and will admit those, who obey his will, to immortality and glory 184
xi. The kingdom, which Christians expect, is not of this world 185
xii. Their religion is the best means of preserving peace 186
xiii. And enables them to defy their persecutors 187
xiv. Jesus Christ foretold their persecutions 188
xv. Justin proceeds to shew what Christianity is
xvi. The worship of the Christians consists in prayer and praise to God, the Creator, to his Son, Jesus Christ, and to the Holy Spirit 189
xvii. A most beneficial change had taken place, in the lives of those who had become Christians 190
xviii. Many precepts of Christ teach chastity 191
xix. — The love of all men 193
xx. — The patient endurance of evil 194
xxi. — And that men should not swear 195
xxii. Christ declared that they who live not as he taught, are not Christians indeed 196
xxiii. And commanded his followers to pay tribute, and honour those in authority 197
xxiv. The superstitions of the heathens themselves might make them believe that the soul survives death 198
xxv. The resurrection of the body is not so incredible as its first formation would be, to one who had had no experience of it 200
xxvi. Christ taught that things impossible with man are possible with God 202
xxvii. The punishment of hell reserved for the unrighteous, is hinted at by some heathens —
xxviii. It is, therefore, unreasonable that Christians alone should be hated, while poets and philosophers, who entertain less just and sublime notions, are honoured 203
xxix. Justin compares the opinions which the heathen falsely maintained respecting Jupiter and others, with the more reasonable tenets of the Christians 205
xxx. And shews that their opinions respecting Christ might well obtain credence from those who held notions of a similar nature respecting their own deities 206
xxxi. The truths of Christianity are more ancient than the fables of heathenism 207
xxxii. Yet Christians alone are punished, while the most absurd idolatries are permitted 208
xxxiii. They have reformed their lives in embracing a purer faith 209
xxxiv. Even after the ascension of Christ the evil spirits have instigated men to call themselves gods: as in the instance of Simon Magus and Menander 210
xxxv. The heresy of Marcion 213
xxxvi. Justin refutes the calumnies, brought against the Christians, of devouring children, and incest : and retorts the charges upon the heathen 215
xxxvii. The purity and continence of the Christians 217
— Lest the miracles of Christ should be ascribed to magic, Justin appeals to prophecy 218
xxxviii. And relates the history of the translation of the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek by the order of Ptolemy 219
xxxix. In those prophecies, the miraculous birth of Jesus, his being made man, his miracles, sufferings, death, resurrection, and ascension, his Divine nature, and the extension of his religion over the whole world are expressly predicted 221
xl. — lii. This is shewn by various quotations 221-236
liii. Justin explains why the Holy prophetic Spirit speaks of future events as already past 236
liv. Christians consider not that events happen by fatal necessity ; which would be inconsistent with the free-will of man 237
lv. But believe this only to be irreversibly determined, that they who choose the good shall be rewarded, and they who choose the evil shall be punished 238
lvi. This is proved by quotations from Scripture 239
lvii. And shewn to agree with the opinion of Plato 240
lviii. Prophecy therefore implies not a fatal necessity, but shews the foreknowledge of God 240
lix. The evil spirits endeavoured to prevent the knowledge of prophecy, but in vain 241
lx. David predicted that God the Father should receive Christ into heaven 241
lxi. Justin asserts that all men, in all ages, who lived agreeably to right reason, were Christians in spirit 242
lxii. Various prophecies, shewing that Jerusalem should be destroyed 244
lxiii. That Christ should heal the sick, and raise the dead 245
lxiv. That He should be made man, and suffer many things, and come again in glory 247
lxv. That He hath an origin which cannot be expressed 249
lxvi. The fulfilment of these prophecies is an earnest that those yet unaccomplished will be fulfilled 250
lxvii. And, therefore, that Christ will come the second time, to judgment 251
lxviii. These prophecies had fully persuaded the Christians to believe Christ, who was crucified, to be the first-born of the unbegotten God 252
lxix. The conversion of the Gentiles was foretold. —
lxx. The evil demons, knowing the prophecies respecting Christ, invented fables of a similar nature, to deceive men 254
lxxi. As in the fables of Bacchus, Bellerophon, Perseus, and Hercules 255
lxxii. But in no fable was the crucifixion of Christ imitated 256
lxxii. The figure of the Cross is almost universally employed 257
lxxiii. The demons also, after the ascension of Christ, raised up men, such as Simon, and Menander, before mentioned, in c. 34 258
lxxiv. The malice of these evil spirits can, however, only instigate the enemies of the Christians to destroy them 259
lxxv. They raised up Marcion to deceive men 260
lxxvi. lxxvii. Plato obtained his notions respecting the creation of the world, and other opinions, from the writings of Moses 261
lxxviii. It is not, then, that the Christians adopt the opinions of others, but others, theirs 268
lxxix. Justin explains the manner in which believers are baptized 264
lxxx. Shews that this new birth is necessary; and that baptism is performed in the name of God the Father, and of Jesus Christ, and of the Holy Spirit 265
lxxxi. Justin then digresses to shew that the evil spirits imitated the practice of baptism ; as they caused the action of Moses, who put off his shoes at the burning bush, to be imitated 266
lxxxii. He declares that it was the Son of God, who appeared to Moses in the bush 267
lxxxiii. And to the prophets in various forms 268
lxxxiv. And asserts that the demons imitated what they learned from the writings of Moses, in several instances 270
lxxxv. Justin then returns to describe the administration of the Eucharist to those who had been baptized 271
lxxxvi. He explains the nature of that sacrament ; that the elements are not common bread nor common drink ; and relates the manner of its institution 278
lxxxvii. The Christians assemble on Sunday. An account of the manner of public worship in the primitive Church 275
lxxxviii. The collection of alms 276
lxxxix. The reason of assembling on Sunday —
xc. Justin concludes with desiring that the Christians may not be condemned unheard ; but expresses their resignation to the will of God;
and subjoins the Epistle of Adrian in their favour 277
The Epistle of Antoninus Pius to the Common Assembly of Asia 278
THE APOLOGY OF TERTULLIAN.
i. The Christians, under Severus, not being permitted to speak in their own defence, Tertullian addresses this written Apology to the Governors of Proconsular Africa. He shews that their religion, founded on truth, requires no favour but demands justice 280
— The hatred which her enemies entertain towards her is manifestly unjust 282
— All Christians glory in their faith 284
ii. Christians, even if guilty, ought to be treated in the same manner as other criminals 286
— The edict of Trajan was self-contradictory 287
— Other criminals are tortured to make them confess ; Christians, to make them deny 288
— The name alone of Christian, not the fact of professing Christianity, is made a crime 291
iii. The enemies of Christianity bear unwilling testimony to its excellence 293
— Yet permit their hatred to prevail over the benefit which they derive from Christianity 294
— The name of Christian is harmless, both in its own signification, and as it relates to its author 295
iii. And is therefore no reasonable ground of accusation 296
iv. Tertullian prepares to answer the charges against Christianity 297
— But first shews that, even if laws exist against the Christians, they may be repealed, as many laws have been 298
— And that laws, which would punish a name, not a crime, are foolish as well as unjust 302
v. The gods of the Romans could not be consecrated without the consent of the Senate
— Tiberius is said to have proposed to introduce Jesus Christ among the Roman gods 303
- The bad emperors were persecutors, the good, protectors, of the Christians 305
— The Thundering Legion 306
vi. The Romans had abrogated many laws of their ancestors ; and greatly degenerated from their severity of life 309
vii. Tertullian refers to many calumnies brought against the Christians 313
— And demands that they may be investigated 314
— Common fame is their only accuser 315
viii. These accusations are in themselves incredible 318
ix. Heathen nations themselves practised the atrocities of which they accused the Christians 322
— As human sacrifices 323
— The tasting of blood 324
— And the crime of incest 327
— From all which Christians are free 328
x. Christians are accused of neither worshipping the gods nor sacrificing to the safety of the Emperors 329
They do this, knowing them to be no gods —
Thus, Saturn was the oldest of the heathen deities, and yet was a man 330
xi. Those persons, who were once men, were never made gods 333
xi. This supposition would imply the existence of a Supreme Deity, who would have no need of dead men ; and would certainly not have chosen such men for their virtues. 333
xii. The absurdity of idol-worship 338
xiii. They who conceive these false gods to be objects of worship, do themselves neglect and insult them 341
xiv. Their sacrifices are disgraceful ; and their mythological history derogatory to the dignity of their gods 245
xv. Their gods were made the subject of ridicule in their fables and dramas 348
— Their temples were constantly desecrated 350
xvi. Calumnies founded upon the alleged objects of Christian worship —
— They are falsely accused of adoring An Asses head 351
A Cross 352
The Sun 354
Or a being of monstrous form 336
xvii. The object of the Christian worship is One God, the Creator of all things 358
— To whom the soul of man naturally bears witness 359
xviii. God hath revealed to us his written word 361
— The prophets taught of old 362
— These Scriptures were translated from Hebrew into Greek, by the command of Ptolemy 363
xix. These Scriptures are most ancient 365
— Moses might be proved to have been antecedent to all heathen writers, and philosophers 366
xx. The authority of Scripture is proved by prophecy 368
xxi. The religion of the Christians must not be confounded with hat of the Jews 370
— Christians worship Christ not as a human being, but as God 371
— Christ is God, and the Son of God 372
xxi. His procession from the Father compared with that of light from the sun 373
— Two comings of Christ are predicted 374
— The Jews ascribed his miracles to magic 375
— They put him to death 376
— But he rose from the dead —
— And shewed himself to chosen witnesses 377
— Pilate wrote an account to Tiberius —
— This statement ought at once to repress all false assertions respecting Christianity 378
xxii. Tertullian declares his sentiments respecting
the existence and occupation of demons 380
— And ascribes the ancient oracles to their agency 383
xxiii. The demons and the heathen gods were the same 385
— Tertullian offers to rest the truth of Christianity on the power of any Christian publicly to expel a demon 386
— Jesus Christ is the Virtue, Spirit, Word, Wisdom, Reason, and Son of God 390
xxiv. The acknowledgement of inferior gods implies the existence of One superior 392
— This God is worshipped by the Christians:
and they claim the same right which is allowed all others 393
xxv. The great prosperity of the Roman Empire was not the reward of the devotion of the Romans to their gods 395
— For the rise of their power preceded the greater part of their worship 398
— And their conquests spared not the temples of the gods themselves 399
xxvi. It is God, therefore, who rules the world 401
xxvii. The Christians cannot be guilty of any offence against gods, who have no existence
— The persecution of the Christians is instigated by the malice of demons 404
xxviii. Compulsory worship could never be acceptable to the gods 406
xxviii. As the Christians are innocent of sacrilege, so also they are not guilty of treason against the Emperors 407
xxix. To sacrifice for the Emperors, to those who are no gods, is but a mockery 408
xxx. Christians pray constantly to the true God for the Emperors, and for the well-being of the state 411
xxxi. This they are commanded to do by their Scriptures 414
xxxii. Christians pray for the continuance of the Roman Empire, after which they expect the day of judgment 416
xxxiii. Christians reverence the Emperor, as appointed by God: but not as a god 419
xxxiv. Augustus would not be called Lord 421
xxxv. The immoral festivities of the heathen are a disgrace, rather than an honour, to the Emperor 423
— Their congratulations are insincere 425
xxxvi. Christians are bound to do good to all men 428
xxxvii. If they were enemies of the state, their numbers would enable them to avenge themselves 430
— The rapid increase of the number of Christians 431
xxxviii. The harmless character of Christians ought to protect them 434
xxxix. Christians met constantly for public worship, and reading the Scriptures 436
— Elders presided; and distributed the common fund 437
— The mutual love of Christians 438
— Their simple feast in common, hallowed by prayer, and religious converse 440
xl. Public calamities were unjustly ascribed to the Christians 444
xli. But rather arise from the impiety of the heathens 448
— All calamities are not judgments 449
xlii. A refutation of the calumny that Christians were useless members of society 450
xliii. Infamous men only had reason to complain of the Christians 454
xliv. The innocency of Christians 455
xlv. Which arises from the principles which they profess 457
xlvi. Christianity is not a species of philosophy 459
— Christians are superior to philosophers in their knowledge of God 461
— In the purity of their lives —
— In humility, and moral virtue 462
xlvii. The heathen philosophers borrowed largely from the Scriptures ; but perverted their meaning 465
xlviii. Those who, with the Pythagoreans, believe a transmigration of souls, may well believe the possibility of a resurrection 470
— The restoration of man to life after death is not so difficult to conceive as his first formation from nothing 472
— The changes of the natural world render a resurrection probable 473
— The phaenomena of lightning and volcanos may be regarded as affording a presumption that the punishment of the wicked in eternal fire is possible 476
xlix. If the opinions of the Christians are prejudices, they are at least innocent 478
L. Christians would gladly avoid suffering, although they cheerfully submit to it 480
— Their resolution is courage, not obstinacy : and similar to that, which is applauded in others 481
— But persecution cannot crush Christianity 482
— The blood of Christians is the seed of the faith 484
— And their patience under martyrdom the most effectual preacher —
APPENDIX.
(A) On the preaching of St Paul in the West. 485
— The probable duration of St Paul's preaching after his first imprisonment —
— Evidence to prove that St Paul visited Spain 486
— Evidence in favour of his preaching in Britain. 487
(B) On the Epistle of Clement, c. xvi. p. 16 — Passages in which Clement speaks of the Divine nature of Christ 491
— Extract from the Epistle to Diognetus 492
(C) On Ignatius’s Epistle to the Magnesians, c. viii 495
(D) The Letters of the younger Pliny and Trajan respecting the Christians 500
ERRATA.

ID Numbers

Open Library
OL25840828M
Internet Archive
ATranslationOfTheEpistlesOfClement
OCLC/WorldCat
20553396

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