A CASE CONTROL STUDY OF MECHANICAL RESTRAINT USE, REHABILITATION THERAPIES AND STAFFING ADEQUACY AS RISK FACTORS FOR FALLS IN AN ELDERLY HOSPITALIZED POPULATION.
by Marian C. Arbesman
Published 1995 .
About the Book
Falls in the elderly have a variety of medical, psychological and health care sequelae. It is estimated that the economic cost for hip fractures alone in the United States is $7 billion per year. This dissertation is a case-control study of risk factors for falls in an elderly hospitalized population. It hypothesized that use of mechanical restraints, participation in a rehabilitation program and staffing adequacy increase falls in such a group.
Charts were reviewed of 250 patients, aged 60 to 85, who fell while on a nursing floor of a large, metropolitan hospital between March, 1993 and December, 1993. Two hundred-fifty controls were randomly selected from patients discharged between March and December, 1993. Controls were selected from those patients between the ages of 60 and 85 and were matched to the case on length of stay to the day of the fall.
Data on the cases and controls were analyzed descriptively, with a paired t-test, and with McNemar's chi-square test for matched pairs. In addition, a matched analysis using conditional logistic regression examined restraint use, participation in a rehabilitation program and ratio of provided to expected nursing personnel as exposure variables.
The results of the regression analysis indicated approximately twice the risk for falls for those individuals who had been placed in a mechanical restraint, but in some models this only approached statistical significance. There was no statistically significant difference for the participation in occupational therapy, physical therapy or cardiac rehabilitation or for staffing adequacy between cases and controls. These hypotheses were rejected after controlling for age, number of diagnoses, mobility status, arthritis, use of mobility aids, assistance with toileting, confused mental status, nonsteroidal anti inflammatory medication, and antihypertensive medication on the day prior to the fall day. In addition, need of mobility assistance, confused mental status, use of mobility aids, age, number of diagnoses, and taking psychotropic medication on the day prior to the fall day were independently predictive of risk for falls in this population, as were medical/functional severity and psychiatric illness, two summary factors developed through factor analysis.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 56-07, Section: B, page: 3712.
Thesis (PH.D.)--STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AT BUFFALO, 1995.
School code: 0656.
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