Cover of: The  annals of San Francisco | Frank Soulé

The annals of San Francisco

containing a summary of the history of ... California, and a complete history of ... its great city: to which are added, biographical memoirs of some prominent citizens.

Published by D. Appleton & Company in New York .
Written in English.

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Table of Contents

Preface 5
PART I 21
CHAPTER I Proposed treatment of the work.— Etymology of the name California — Lower or Old California — Grixalva and Mendoza — First discovery — Expeditions of Cortez — Cabrillo — Ferrelo — Drake — Drake's description of the natives — Bodega and San Francisco Bays — Sir Francis Drake's Bay.— Captain Thomas Cavendish — Captain Woodes Rogers — His description of the natives — The English buccaneering expeditions along the west coasts of the Americas — Political reasons why the Spanish Government strenuously prosecuted the discovery and settlement of California 21
CHAPTER II Expeditions of Viscaino — Admiral Otondo and Father Kino — First settlement, and introduction of the priest rule in the Californias — Failure and withdrawal of the first missions — Renewed attempts to make settlements — Father Salva-Tierra and his coadjutors.— Final establishment of the Jesuits in the country — Geographical discoveries of Father Kino — Jesuits expelled and superseded by Franciscan Friars; these, in turn, by the Dominican Monks — Population and physical character of Old or Lower California 38
CHAPTER III First settlement of New or Upper California by Franciscan Monks — Supposed earliest discovery of San Francisco Bay — Origin of the name — Establishment of a Mission and Presidio there, and ceremonies on the occasion.— Gradual establishment of Missions and Presidios over the country — List of these, and population of some at various dates — The gente de razon and the bestias, or the rational creatures and beasts of the country — Causes why free white settlers few in number — Character of the natives as given by Venegas, and other writers — Progress and apparent destiny of the Anglo-Saxons on the Pacific 45
CHAPTER IV Conduct of the Fathers towards the natives — Their mode of instructing, employing and subsisting the converts — The Fathers do not appear to have promoted the true welfare of the aborigines, or done any good to humanity.— Pictures, if gaudily colored and horrible in subject, great aids to conversion — Missions and population of the country at recent dates — Table on this subject — Tables of the farm produce and domestic cattle of the country — Table of prices 56
CHAPTER V Pious Fund of California.— General description of the Missions.— Patriarchal kind of life of the Fathers — Reflections on the subject- General description of the Presidios, Castillos, and their garrisons, and of the free Pueblos and Ranchios 67
CHAPTER VI — Independence of Mexico in 1822, and gradual changes in the character and constitution of the Missions — Manumission of the Indians in 1826 ; but plan found unworkable, and return to the old state of things — Gradual disappearance of the Pious Fund — Increasing riches of the Fathers — Changes of 1833 and 1834 in the Missions, and attempts by the Mexican Congress to secularize their property — Santa Anna — Attempted Centralization of the Mexican Government — Overthrow of the old Federal Constitution in 1836 — Revolt and Declaration of Independence of the Californians.— Continual sinking of the Fathers, and final fall of the Missions in 1845 — Indian converts sent adrift, and Mission property sold or rented — Cost of the support of the Missions to the Spanish and Mexican Governments 74
CHAPTER VII California distinct in physical character and national feeling from the other Mexican provinces.— Beginning and progress of immigration into the country — The Russians at Bodega Bay.— Later great increase of foreign white settlers; Americans largely preponderating — Outrage committed upon the settlers by Mexican authorities.— Commodore Jones takes possession of Monterey — Foreign settlers scatter themselves over the whole country, and silently, but rapidly, revolutionize or Americanize it — Origin of the war of 1846 between the Mexican and American States 81
CHAPTER VIII Col John C Fremont— General Jose Castro.— Fremont declares war against California.— Capture of Sonoma.— Proclamation of William B Ide.— Letter of Pio Pico, Governor of the Californias, to Thomas O Larkin, Consul of the United States.— Thomas O Larkin's reply to Pio Pico — California declared independent — California desired by the American Government — Col Stevenson's regiment — Movements of General Kearny — Seizure of Monterey — Proclamation of Com. Sloat— Commander Montgomery takes possession of Yerba Buena and Fremont of San Juan 90
CHAPTER IX Commodore Stockton takes charge of the American forces in California — Hostility of the Californians — Proclamation of Com Stockton — Landing at San Pedro, and manoeuvres of the sailor army — Castro's commissioners — March on Los Angeles, and flight of General Castro — Triumphant entry into Los Angeles — Provisional government formed — The difficulties of Stockton's march, and the complete success of his plans — Reported hostility of the Walla- Walla Indians — Enthusiastic reception of Stockton at San Francisco and other places — Satisfaction of the people of California with the new government — Stockton designs to cross Mexico and unite with the forces of General Taylor 101
CHAPTER X Insurrection of the Californians — Proclamation of General Flores — Defeat and surrender of Talbot and Gillespie — Captain Mervine defeated, with the crew of the Savannah — Com Stockton defeats the Californians at San Diego — Defeat of General Kearny at San Pasqual — The official relations of Com Stockton and Gen Kearny — Movement against Los Angeles —Battles of the Rio San Gabriel, and the Plains of the Mesa — Fremont negotiates with General Flores and Andreas Pico — Fremont appointed Governor, and subsequently tried by Court Martial — Arrival of Commodore Shubrick, and the confirmation of General Kearny as Governor — Mexican Governors of California — Foreign Consuls in the Territory 113
CHAPTER XI — Peace concluded between the Mexican and American States.— Terms of the Treaty —California ceded to the United States — The country ruled provisionally by American Governors.-Rapid increase of population by immigration.— Discovery of gold on the American River by Mr James W Marshall.— Great excitement in consequence of the discovery, and rush of people to the gold placers.— Mixed character of the population.— Necessity for the establishment of a proper form of Government— Independent sectional legislation inadequate and unsatisfactory —Meetings held to effect a general civil organization.— General Riley issues a proclamation for a meeting to be held at Monterey to adopt a State Constitution.— Names of delegates appointed —Meeting at Monterey.— Constitution of California adopted, and rejoicings on the occasion 128
CHAPTER XII.— Geographical limits of Upper California.— General description of the country.— Two great divisions of the northern part of the State.— Fertility of the soil.— Peculiarities of the climate.— Two seasons: wet and dry.— Products of the country.— Fogs and winds on the coast— The harbors.— Country west of the Sierra Nevada.— The Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, and their valleys.- This region of country abounds in timber.— Excessive heat in the dry season.— Localities of the chief gold placers.— Immense size of trees.— Silver, lead, copper and coal mines.— Advantages to the immigrant 140
PART II 149
CHAPTER I — Description of the Golden Gate.— Origin of the name.- The Bays of San Francisco San Pablo, and Suisun.-Rivers emptying into Suisun Bay.— Description of the adjacent country.— Indian tradition.— Remarkable fertility of the soil.— Farm produce and mode of farming - Location of the City of San Francisco.- The name Yerba Buena —The first house built— Disadvantages of the locality.— No provision made for desirable public squares or parks 149
CHAPTER II — The Mission and Presidio of San Francisco.— Formation and survey of the village of Yerba Buena — Disputes and litigation in regard to Yerba Buena being a Pueblo.— Captain Richardson the first Harbor Master.— Visits of national and other vessels to Yerba Buena Cove — Reasons why the whale ships ceased to enter the harbor fur supplies.— Traffic between Yerba Buena and foreign ports — Hides and tallow the chief exports — Prices obtained for these — Heavy rains and their effects — Earthquakes — Unusnal drought — Mr Jacob P Leese establishes himself at Yerba Buena —Celebration of the Fourth of July at Leese's house.— First child borm —Limits of the original survey 162
CHAPTER III — Removal of the Hudson's Bay Company.— Rapid growth and increase of population of Yerba Buena.— First newspapers established in California.— Tables showing the number of inhabitants in 1847, with their places of birth, ages, sexes and occupations.— Ordinance of the alcalde changing the name of Yerba Buena to San Francisco.— W A Bartlett was the first alcalde under the American flag, who was succeeded by George Hyde, and he by Edwin Bryant.— Powers of an alcalde — Great sale of beach and water lots, agreeably to a decree of General Kearny, — Price of grants of property, and subsequent increased value of city lots — Width of the streets — Municipal regulation restricting purchasers 173
CHAPTER IV — Captain Montgomery hoists the American flag on Portsmouth Square — Arrival of the ship Brooklyn from New York, with a large company of Mormon and other immigrant' — Disputes among her passengers, leading to the first jury trial in San Francisco — Grand ball at the residence of Wm A Leidesdorff.— Nautical fete given by Capt Simmons.— Public reception of Com Stockton — Attempts to establish a public school.— Name of town changed to San Francisco — Number of buildings and inhabitants.— Suffering immigrants in the Sierra Nevada, — Trustees of the proposed school chosen — Delegates to represent the District of San Francisco in the new legislative council- Arrival of Col Stevenson and New York Volunteers.— Vessels in the harbor, 1.3th March, 1847.— The California Star adopts the name of San Francisco — Mails established between San Francisco and San Diego — Proposed erection of a church — Grand illumination in honor of Gen Taylor's victory at Buena Vista — Celebrations of Anniversaries — Public meeting to consider the claims of Col Fremont to the office of Governor of the Territory — Sale of beach and water lots — Election of the first town council — The first public school — Gales in San Francisco Bay — The first steamboat — Thanksgiving Day — Commercial Statistics 185
CHAPTER V — Resolutions concerning gambling — Public sale of City Property — Price Current published — Condition and population of the town — Overland express to Independence, Mo — George Hyde, alcalde, resigned, and succeeded by Dr J Townsend — Death of Wm A Leidesdorff — Discovery of gold, and immediate effects — Illumination in celebration of the peace between Mexico and the United States — Dr T M Leavenworth elected alcalde — First brick house — Public meeting to regulate the price of gold dust — First square-rigged vessel discharged at Broadway wharf— Judicial limits of the town — Rev T, D Hunt chosen chaplain — First issue of the " Star and Californian." — State of the markets — Public meeting to organize a Provisional Government — New town council elected — Election declared invalid — Duties collected at the Custom-House 199
CHAPTER VI — General Effects of the Gold Discoveries 209
CHAPTER VII — The Alta California newspaper established.— Delegates elected to the proposed convention to be held at San Jose — New town council elected — Three town councils at one time — Meeting of the convention to frame a civil government postponed — Public meeting respecting the conflicting councils — Public meeting concerning negro slavery — Town councils resigned, and legislative assembly chosen — Arrival of the steamship California — Address of delegates to civil government convention — Arrival of steamship Oregon, and Col John W Geary with the first United States mails — General Riley announced territorial governor — Acts of the legislative assembly and of the governor — Meetings concerning municipal and State governments — Growth, population and general prosperity of the city — Gambling and other vices and crimes 218
CHAPTER VIII — The Hounds — Election of Supreme Judge, delegates to convention and municipal officers — Alcalde's address to the Ayuntamiento — Duties of prefects— The prison brig Euphemia and store-ship Apollo — Churges — Regulations and appointments of the Ayuntamiento — The "Pacific News" commenced.— Meeting of the Constitution Convention at Monterey — Merchants' Exchange — Steam Navigation — Death of Nathan Spear - First democratic meeting.— Circus opened.— Constitution approved and State officers elected.— First habitation on Rincon Point— Thanksgiving Day.-Judge Almond's court -The "Alta California."-- First great Fire 227
CHAPTER IX — Increase of population —No proper homes.— Character of the houses.— Condition of the streets.- Employments of the people.— Every thing in apparent confusion ; still nobody idle, and much business accomplished.— How the inhabitants lived.— Money rapidly made and freely spent— Gambling.— Shipping deserted —Extravagantly high prices obtained for every thing.— Rents and wages.— The mines the source of all the wealth.— Destitution, sickness and death.— Increase of crime —Aspect of the Plaza.— Mixed character of the inhabitants.— The Post- office.— A pleasant prospect 243
CHAPTER X — Great sale of water lots.— An election day —Newspapers.— Approval by the ayuntamiento of the City Charter, and limits of San Francisco.— Squatter difficulty at Rincon Point— Political meeting on Portsmouth Square.- The Colton grants.— First county election.— Col John C Hayes elected Sheriff.- City Charter adopted by the State Legislature.— First election under the City Charter.— Changes in the Common Council 264
CHAPTER XI — Third great fire.— Aldermen's salaries.— Indignation meetings.— Veto message of the mayor.— Shipping in San Francisco Bay.— Celebration of the Fourth of July.— The Oregon Liberty Pole.— Custom-house at the corner of California and Montgomery streets.— Departure from California of General Riley.— Society of California Pioneers — Squatter riots at Sacramento —Suffering immigrants — Presentation of Chinese Books — Funeral ceremonies on occasion of the death of President Taylor.— A Chinese document 277
CHAPTER XII — The first City Directory published.— Monetary crisis.— Fourth great fire.— Death of Captain Bezer Simmons.— The wharves.— Celebration on account of the admission of California into the Union of American States.— Explosion of the steamer Sagamore.— City Hospital burned —Improvements in the city.— Plank road to the Mission Dolores — Death of the mayor of Sacramento — Thanksgiving Day.— Fire in Sacramento-street 289
CHAPTER XIII — Population in 1850.— City improvements.— Grading and planking streets.— Wharves, steamers, manufactures.— Supply and demand for goods — Mines yielding abundantly — Expresses established.-Moral progress.— Better state of things — Cholera.— California admitted to the Union.— City Charter granted.— First Common Council — The gold medals for Aldermen.— Corruption of officials.— Colton Grants.— Leidesdorff Estate.— City finances.— Outrages and fires —The prisons and police.— Lynch Law agitated 300
CHAPTER XIV — The Gold Bluffs and Pacific Mining Company.— The excitement at the City hall in February, 1851.— Attempt to Lynch Burdue and Windred — Their subsequent escape — Burning of the steamers Hartford and Santa Clara 311
CHAPTER XV — Judge Parsons and the case of William Walker for contempt of Court— Act of Legislature ceding Beach and Water Lots to the City of San Francisco — Act to re-incorporate the city — New city limits — First election of municipal officers under revised charter — Act passed to fund the State debt — Act to establish State Marine Hospital.— Act to fund the floating debt— Indebtedness of the city — Municipal officers trafficking in city scrip — Fifth great fire 322
CHAPTER XVI — T. Butler King removing the custom-house deposits.— Frank Ball's song, and custom-house appointment — Dr Robinson's rhymes — Incendiarism — The case of Lewis, charged with arson — The facilities with which criminals escaped from punishment — The Vigilance Committee — Contracts of Mr Merrifield and the Mountain Water Lake Company to supply the city with water 334
CHAPTER XVII — The sixth groat fire.— Destruction of old buildings.— Execution by the Vigilance Committee of Stuart, Whittaker and McKenzie — County and city elections — The Vigilance Committee suspend operations.— Wells & Co suspend payment— Opening of the Jenny Lind Theatre.— The American Theatre opened.— Shipping in San Francisco Bay.— Ball of the Monumental Fire Company.— Indian disturbances and volunteer military companies.— Severe storm 344
CHAPTER XVIII — Immigration diminished — Females comparatively few — Great city improvements — Productions of the country, game, &c., in the markets — Character of the community changing for the better — The circulating medium — Extravagance in living, dress, &c — Personal rencontres and other outrages common.— Titles to real estate uncertain — Legal decisions — Depreciated value of merchandise.—Amusements, dissipation and recreation — The foreign population - Great crimes less frequent — The finances of the city 357
CHAPTER XIX — Dr Peter Smith — His contract with the city to take charge of the indigent sick — The city's indebtedness — Smith's judgments and executions — Injunctions of the commissioners of the funded debt — Sale and sacrifice of tho city property under Smith's judgments 370
CHAPTER XX.— The Chinese in California— Act passed to fund the floating debt of the State — The State Marine Hospital — Act to convert into a seven per cent, stock the floating debt of the County of San Francisco — Anniversary of fires — Meetings of the Vigilance Committee 378
CHAPTER XXI — Clipper Ships.— Enormous Taxation.— Purchase of the Jenny Lind Theatre by the Common Council — Times and Transcript removes to San Francisco — Fourth of July celebration.— Great scarcity of printing paper — Duel between Hon Edward Gilbert and General Denver — Custom of Duelling — Funeral ceremonies on occasion of the death of Henry Clay 391
CHAPTER XXII.— Australian gold mines — Restlessness of miners — Many who emigrated to Australia return to California — Superior advantages of the latter place — Second city directory published — California Telegraph Company — General election — Fire in Sacramento City.— Another fire in San Francisco — Intelligence received of the death of Daniel Webster.— Falling of the waters of Lake La Mercede — Another city directory — Firemen's election — Legal execution of Jose Forni — Destructive storm 402
CHAPTER XXIII — Increase of population.— Mixed character of the immigrants.— Chinese, Peruvians, Chilenos, and other foreigners, notoriously vicious — Sufferings of the overland immigrants — Greater attention paid to agricultural pursuits — City improvements still progressing — Great fires no longer possible — Fire insurance agencies established — Manufactories — New gold discoveries — Emigration to Australia — Merchandise and provisions commanding high prices — The clipper ships.— Filthy condition of the streets — Great abundance of rats.— The city extension, bay, and shipping — The strong winds preventive of disease — Peculations of officials.— San Francisco only suitable for the industrious — The city growing in importance — Change of inhabitants — Fascinations of San Francisco life — Reflections concerning the moral condition of the city 411
CHAPTER XXIV — Commerce.- Mercantile Library Association — Tho Limantour claim.— Election of delegates to revise the City Charter.— Third annual celebration of the organization of tho Fire Department.— Steamships lost— Extension of the city water front- United States Marine Hospital 427
CHAPTER XXV — Russ's garden.— The German population — May-day celebration by school-children.— Burning of the Rassette House.— Mountain Lake Water Company.— General State Hospital.— Drinking houses.— Clipper ships and short passages.— Military parade and celebration of 4th of July.— Dedication of the First Congregational Church.— St Mary's (Catholic) Church.— Unitarian Church.— Seamen's Bethel.— Squatter difficulties.— Store-ships burned.— Strikes by mechanics and laborers for higher wages.— Anniversary of the German Turnverein.— City and county election.— Lafayette Hook and Ladder Company organized.— The French inhabitants.— Sweeney & Baugh's electric telegraph 445
CHAPTER XXVI — Important legal decision of the Supreme Court confirming Alcaldes' grants.— Burning of the St Francis Hotel.— Opening of the telegraph communication to Marysville.— Lone Mountain Cemetery.— Anniversary of the day of St Francis.— The Mission Dolores.— Tho Spanish races in California.— The Custom- House Block.— The steamship Winfield Scott wrecked.— Election of officers of the Fire Department.— The Sonorian Filibusters.— Opening of the Metropolitan Theatre.— Great sales of water lots.— Montgomery block 467
CHAPTER XXVII — Numbers and description of the population of the State.— Amount of gold produced from California mines.— San Francisco as related to California.— Population of San Francisco — City improvements.— Commercial statistics 484
CHAPTER XXVIII — Prosperity of San Francisco.— Business activity.— Fortunes rapidly made.— Disputes concerning titles to real estate.— Real property commanding extravagantly high prices —Social, moral and intellectual characteristic!'.- Gambling.— Vice less concealed in San Francisco than in other cities.- The female population.— Expenses of housekeeping.— Foreign population —The marvellous progress of the city during the past few years 497
CHAPTER XXIX — Meeting of citizens regarding the State Revenue Act— Run on Adams & Co —Banking and banking-houses.— The Express Building.— Weather unusually cold.— Effects of the weather upon the interests of the country.— Le Count & Strong's Directory for 1854 — Loss of the clipper ship San Francisco.— The city lighted with gas.— Riot at the Mercantile Hotel 510
CHAPTER XXX — Commercial depression — Decrease in the value of real estate and merchandise —Combination of the steamboat owners — Rates of freight and passage on river steamers.— Duels and duelling.— Sale of "government reserve" town lots — Celebration of St Patrick's day —Conviction of filibusters — Opening of the San Francisco branch mint — The Pacific railroad — Falling of the U S bonded-warehouse.— Explosion of the boiler of the steamboat "Secretary." — Arrival of Chinese immigrants — Quick passage of the clipper ship " Flying Cloud." — Wreck of the "Golden Fleece" 519
CHAPTER XXXI — Trial of the Mexican consul.— Arrest of the French consul.— Chinese newspaper established — German May-feast at Russ's Garden — The Hoadley street grades — Indictment by the Grand Jury of Sonora filibusters — Dedication of the Lone Mountain Cemetery — Extensive Conflagration — Report of the funded debt commissioners.— Squatter difficulties — Sale of public property — Captain Adams arrived with the Japan treaty — Alderman elected 531
CHAPTER XXXII — Commercial depression — Reduction of prices of merchandise and real estate — Fall in rents — Improved character of the buildings — The plaza being improved — Government fortifications of the harbor commenced — Immigration and emigration — The population — Yield of the gold mines — Labor profitable in California — The quicksilver mines — Agricultural resources — Fisheries — Telegraphs and railroads — Ship-building — Foreign relations — Ice and coal trade — Mail steamers between San Francisco and Shanghae — The international railway — San Francisco water front extension — The proposed new city charter — Claim of the city to Pueblo lands — Increase of sources of domestic comfort — Immoralities continue to prevail — Duel and duelling — Theatrical entertainments — Daily newspapers — Means of moral and educational improvement 543
PART III 558
The Hounds 558
The Vigilance Committee 563
Deaths and Burials 588
The Great Fires 598
The Fire Department 614
Steamer-Day 626
Hotels, Restaurants and Boardinq-Houses 689
Public Amusements 653
Some Phases of San Francisco " Life " 665
Public Schools 675
Churches and Religion 687
Independent Military Organizations 702
Social and Benevolent Institutions 709
Memoir of John W Geary 718
Memoir of Charles J. Brenham 735
Memoir of Stephen R Harris, M D 740
Memoir of C K Garrison 744
Memoir of Samuel Brannan 745
Memoir of Joseph L. Folsom 754
Memoir of Thomas O. Larkin 758
Memoir of John A. Sutter 765
Memoir of Mariano de Guadalupe Vallejo 769
Memoir of Edward Gilbert 773
Memoir of William D. M. Howard 779
Memoir of Joseph F. Atwill 781
Memoir of Jonathan D. Stevenson 784
Memoir of William M. Gwin 790
Memoir of Selim E. Woodworth 794
Memoir of Theodore Payne 799
Appendix 805
Great Seal of the State of California 805
Constitution of the State of California 806
Act of Corporation of the City of San Francisco 816
Members of the Society of California Pioneers 822

Classifications

Library of Congress F869.S3 S7

The Physical Object

Pagination 824 p.
Number of pages 824

ID Numbers

Open Library OL13993482M
Internet Archive annalsofsanfranc00soul
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September 12, 2011 Edited by mikemccabe tocbot fixup
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